Sound of Music 2 – The Shehnai of Bismillah Khan

  1. What led to the revival of shehnai? How did it get its name?
    1. Emperor Aurangzeb banned the playing of a musical instrument called pungi in the royal residence for it had a shrill unpleasant sound.
    2. Pungi became the generic name for reeded noisemakers.
    3. Few had thought that it would one day be revived.
    4. A barber of a family of professional musicians, who had access to the royal palace, decided to improve the tonal quality of the pungi.
    5. He chose a pipe with a natural hollow stem that was longer and broader than the pungi, and made seven holes on the body of the pipe.
    6. When he played on it, closing and opening some of these holes, soft and melodious sounds were produced.
    7. He played the instrument before royalty and everyone was impressed.
    8. The instrument so different from the pungi had to be given a new name.
    9. As the story goes, since it was first played in the Shah’s chambers and was played by a nai (barber), the instrument was named the ‘shehnai’.
  2. Shehnai has great importance in the northern part of India. Explain.
    1. The sound of the shehnai began to be considered auspicious.
    2. And for this reason it is still played in temples and is an indispensable component of any North Indian wedding.
    3. In the past, the shehnai was part of the naubat or traditional ensemble of nine instruments found at royal courts.
    4. Till recently it was used only in temples and weddings.
  3. How id Bismilla Khan remembered in association with the Shehnai?
    The credit for bringing this instrument onto the classical stage goes to Ustad Bismillah Khan.
  4. As a five-year old, Bismillah Khan played gillidanda near a pond in the ancient estate of Dumraon in Bihar.
  5. He would regularly go to the nearby Bihariji temple to sing the Bhojpuri ‘Chaita’, at the end of which he would earn a big laddu weighing 1.25 kg, a prize given by the local Maharaja.
  6. This happened 80 years ago, and the little boy has travelled far to earn the highest civilian award in India — the Bharat Ratna.
Growing Up to Fame
  1. How did the tides of the Ganga help Ustaad Bismilla Khan to explore the shehnai? (1 mark)
  2. All India Radio gave Ustad Bismilla Khan a break. Explain (2 marks)
  3. How does the life of Bismillah Khan prove that music has no religious and geographical limits? (4 Marks)
  4. How did Bismillah Khan and Shehnai grow up to fame? (8 Marks)
    1. Birth – 21 March 1916. Family of musicians in Bihar, India.
    2. Parents
      1. Grandfather – Rasool Bux Khan, the shehnainawaz of the Bhojpur king’s court.
      2. Father – Paigambar Bux, shehnai player.
    3. Early association with music:
      1. Took to music early in life.
      2. At the age of three – mother took him to his maternal uncle’s house in Benaras – Bismillah was fascinated watching his uncles practise the shehnai.
      3. Started accompanying his uncle, Ali Bux, to the Vishnu temple of Benaras where Bux was employed to play the shehnai.
      4. Ali Bux would play the shehnai and Bismillah would sit captivated for hours on end.
    4. Learning shehnai
      1. Started getting lessons – practising throughout the day.
      2. Practicing at the temple of Balaji and Mangala Maiya, Banaras.
      3. Invented ragas that were earlier considered to be beyond the range of the shehnai.
    5. Traveling
      1. At the age of 14, Bismillah accompanied his uncle to the Allahabad Music Conference.
      2. At the end of his recital, Ustad Faiyaz Khan patted the young boy’s back and said, “Work hard and you shall make it.”
    6. AIR and Bismillah Khan
      1. With the opening of the All India Radio in Lucknow in 1938 came Bismillah’s big break.
      2. He soon became an often-heard shehnai player on radio.
    7. After Independence
      1. When India gained independence on 15 August 1947, Bismillah Khan became the first Indian to greet the nation with his shehnai.
      2. He poured his heart out into Raag Kafi from the Red Fort to an audience which included Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who later gave his famous ‘Tryst with Destiny’ speech.
      3. Bismillah Khan has given many memorable performances both in India and abroad.
  5. Traveling abroad
    1. His first trip abroad was to Afghanistan where King Zahir Shah was so taken in by the maestro that he gifted him priceless Persian carpets and other souvenirs.
    2. The King of Afghanistan was not the only one to be fascinated with Bismillah’s music.
  6. Khan and Cinema
    1. Film director Vijay Bhatt was so impressed after hearing Bismillah play at a festival that he named a film after the instrument called Gunj Uthi Shehnai.
    2. The film was a hit, and one of Bismillah Khan’s compositions, “Dil ka khilona hai toot gaya …,” turned out to be a nationwide chartbuster!
    3. Despite this huge success in the celluloid world, Bismillah Khan’s ventures in film music were limited to two:
      1. Vijay Bhatt’s Gunj Uthi Shehnai.
      2. Vikram Srinivas’s Kannada venture, Sanadhi Apanna.
    4. “I just can’t come to terms with the artificiality and glamour of the film world,” he says with emphasis.
Awards and recognition.
  1. Bismillah Khan became the first Indian to be invited to perform at the prestigious Lincoln Centre Hall in the United States of America.
  2. He also took part in the World Exposition in Montreal, in the Cannes Art Festival and in the Osaka Trade Fair.
  3. So well known did he become internationally that an auditorium in Teheran was named after him — Tahar Mosiquee Ustaad Bismillah Khan.
  4. National awards like the Padmashri, the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Vibhushan were conferred on him.
  5. In 2001, Ustad Bismillah Khan was awarded India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.
  6. With the coveted award resting on his chest and his eyes glinting with rare happiness he said, “All I would like to say is: Teach your children music, this is Hindustan’s richest tradition; even the West is now coming to learn our music.’’
Khan’s Love for India
  1. In spite of having travelled all over the world — Khansaab as he is fondly called — is exceedingly fond of Benaras and Dumraon and they remain for him the most wonderful towns of the world.
  2. A student of his once wanted him to head a shehnai school in the U.S.A., and the student promised to recreate the atmosphere of Benaras by replicating the temples there.
  3. But Khansaab asked him if he would be able to transport River Ganga as well.
  4. Later he is remembered to have said, “That is why whenever I am in a foreign country, I keep yearning to see Hindustan. While in Mumbai, I think of only Benaras and the holy Ganga.
  5. And while in Benaras, I miss the unique mattha of Dumraon.”
  6. Ustad Bismillah Khan’s life is a perfect example of the rich, cultural heritage of India, one that effortlessly accepts that a devout Muslim like him can very naturally play the shehnai every morning at the Kashi Vishwanath temple.
  7. Ustad Bismillah Khan passed away on 21 August 2006 at the age of ninety after a prolonged illness. He was given a state funeral and the Government of India declared one day of national mourning.

Biju John is an educational writer, educator and the author of OM - The Otherwise Men. He gives live classes on Skype and Facebook. You can attend his 3 Day Classes (English & Business Studies) in Delhi, Bangalore, Qatar and Dubai. His Contact number is 91 9810740061.

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