Day One is here with a few questions. Rather than giving you tasks, we give you inputs and solutions. Please attempt all the questions and send us your answers for assessment.
Reading Task 1
Hemodialysis is the most common type of dialysis. This process uses an artificial kidney (hemodialyzer) to remove waste and extra fluid from the blood. The blood is removed from the body and filtered through the artificial kidney. The filtered blood is then returned to the body with the help of a dialysis machine. To get the blood to flow to the artificial kidney, your doctor will perform surgery to create an entrance point (vascular access) into your blood vessels. The three types of entrance points are arteriovenous (AV) fistula, AV graft and Vascular access catheter. While the first kind connects an artery and a vein, AV graft type is a looped tube. Vascular access catheter may be inserted into the large vein in your neck.
Health care providers recommend an AV fistula over the other types of access because it provides good blood flow for dialysis, lasts longer than other types of access and is less likely to get infected or cause blood clots than other types of access.
Both the AV fistula and AV graft are designed for long-term dialysis treatments. People who receive AV fistulas are healed and ready to begin hemodialysis two to three months after their surgery. People who receive AV grafts are ready in two to three weeks. Catheters are designed for short-term or temporary use.
If a patient who requires repeated hemodialysis, the doctor should perform:
- Arteriovenous (AV) fistula Surgery
- AV Graft
- Vascular access Catheter
Reading Task 2
The risk factors for Ebola hemorrhagic fever are travel to areas with reported Ebola infections. In addition, association with animals (mainly primates in the area with reported Ebola infections) is potentially a health risk factor according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Another potential source of the virus is eating or handling “bush meat.” Bush meat is the meat of wild animals, including hoofed animals, primates, bats, and rodents. Evidence for any airborne transmission of this virus is lacking. During Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, health care workers and family members and friends associated with an infected person (human-to-human transfer) are at the highest risk of getting the disease.
Researchers who study Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses are also at risk of developing the disease if a laboratory accident occurs. Caring for infected patients who are near-death or disposing of bodies of individuals that have recently died of Ebola infection is a very high risk factor because in these situations, the Ebola virus is highly concentrated in any blood or bodily secretions. Caregivers should wear appropriate personal protective equipment.
Who among the three is surely at the risk of Ebola infection?
- A butcher who sells the meat of hoofed animals infected with Ebola.
- Relative of someone who has died of Ebola.
- Nurses who fail to wear appropriate personal protective equipment in hospitals
Speaking Role Play
The patient is an Australian man in his 50s, recently back from an African trip. He is greatly worried about certain symptoms he himself has observed about him. Initially he had fever, headache, muscle pain and chills. In the last three days he experienced internal bleeding resulting in twice vomiting and once coughing blood. Mr Aveo Fred thinks that he has got an infection of Ebola. Mr Fred is afraid of disclosing his suspicion to any doctor so he has decided to consult this with a nurse at Holy Cross Hospital.
- Sam Mithel, 6,
- Unusually weak lungs due to pulmonary fibrosis,
- Exhibits occasional fits of autism.
- Admission date – 2nd December, 2018
- Discharge in a week’s time (depending on the doctor’s approval)
- Consulted many physicians and psychiatrists.
- No improvement noticed.
- Doctors have advised regular exercise and yoga for lungs.
- The patient is not cooperating with doctors.
- Refuses medicines but willing to take extremely sugary medicines.
- Mother and stepfather very concerned.
- Plays with other children but gets into fights and violence.
- Recently the child behaves more like a bipolar.
- Parents are more worried abut his progress.
- At home under the observation of a duty nurse and Ms Jennifer, his attendant since he was born.
- The patient may not recover under the present medication and doctors.
- If parents are willing (they are rich) the patient need to be treated at MMA Hospital, Miniota.
- The patient insists on being attended by Ms Jennifer. He is not particular about his parents’ presence.
Tests and Treatment
- Echocardiogram and CT show minimal damage to the lungs.
- Pumonary function test.
- Spirometry revealed fluctuating lung function.
- Pulse oxymetry. Saturation 90% normal.
- Sertraline (Zoloft) and fluoxetine (Prozac) for autism.
- Nintedanib (Ofev®) and Pirfenidone (Esbriet®) for PF.
As Ms. Oliver Hanks, duty nurse, Breathe Well Care, Miniota, write a letter of reference to Dr. Abraham Little, child and lung specialist at MMA Hospital, Miniota.
OET Flash Reading
Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). It ranges in severity from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks (acute), to a serious long-term (chronic) illness that can lead to liver disease or liver cancer. You can get Hepatitis B when you have contact with infectious blood, semen, and other body fluids from having sex with an infected person, sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs, or from an infected mother to her newborn.
Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV infection sometimes results in an acute illness, but most often becomes a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. You can get Hepatitis C when you have contact with the blood of an infected person, primarily through sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs.
Based on the information in the texts, which of the two is more dangerous?
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis C
- Both of them
Why is option B correct?
It is tricky. First of all, the correct answer is chosen based on the given texts. Look at this statement:
HCV infection sometimes results in an acute illness, but most often becomes a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.
Because of the expression, “most often,” we understand that HCV is more dangerous than HBV.