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Exam Pack 12 English Core

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Exam Pack 12 English Core

A Must Read for Class 12 Core English

Previous years' questions, updated writing sections and formats, most possible questions. Your page for daily visit.

Summary & Notes

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Best Practices to Frame Best Answers

  1. See what kind of question you are going to answer. There are generally three kinds of questions:
    1. Story Questions
    2. Poetry Questions
    3. Analytical Questions
  2. Story Questions should be answered in past tense.
  3. Poetry Questions should be answered in present-past combination
  4. Analytical Questions should be answered in present tense.

The Last Lesson

  1. Why did Watcher the blacksmith tell Franz that there was plenty of time to school? (3 marks)
  2. What made Franz wonder if the Prussians would make the pigeons coo in German? (3 marks)
  3. Why were the people of Alsace sad and angry while standing in front of the bulletin board at the Town Hall? (3 marks)
  4. Explain, “as far as a people have hold on their own language, it is as if they have the key to their own prison.” (3 marks)
  5. Mr. Hamel tells the people of Alsace to safeguard their language among themselves. Rejecting one’s tongue is denying one’s own culture. Comment on the craze for English language among the modern day youth (of your country) and mention the values needed to revive and encourage pride in regional languages. (6 marks)
  6. India’s Make in India project is aiming not only at manufacturing salt to smartphone indigenously but also centralizing Hindi as its prime language – in North and South alike. Analyse its threats and benefits. (6 marks)

Lost Spring

  1. Why is it difficult for Saheb to believe the meaning of his name? (Saheb’s full name 1 mark; the meaning of the full name 1 mark; why he can’t believe 1 mark)
  2. Why are young boys and girls hailing from Firozabad not able to opt out of bangle making? (Present condition 1 mark; causes of not able to opt out 2 marks)
  3. What is the significance of the story a man from Udipi once told the author? (The story 1 mark; general significance 1 mark; significance in connection with child-labor 1 mark)
  4. Why had Mukesh’s embarrassment not turned into regret when Anees Jung asked him if he dreamed of flying airplanes? (3 marks)
  5. In spite of widespread education and awareness programs, a large segment of India’s population remains far away from the mainstream world culture. Young men and women do not dare to think differently. They do what their parents used to do. How far is education important for transforming the lives of India’s youth?

Deep Water

  1. What was Douglas’ first misadventure with water? How far-reaching was its impact upon him? (California beach experience 1 mark; sudden impact 1 mark; far reaching impact 1 mark)
  2. Why was Douglas’ mother particularly scared of sending him to swim in the Yakima River? (3 marks)
  3. Why did Douglas go on with a period of self training even after the successful completion of his swimming training under a professional? (Lack of confidence 1 mark; residual doubts and fears 1 mark; bracing and building self confidence for a long run 1 mark)
  4. “All we have to fear is fear itself,” says one of the US Presidents, Roosevelt. How do you understand the deeper and tricky translation implied in the statement? How did William Douglas actualize it in his life?

The Rattrap

  1. Why was the peddler glad to cherish the idea that the whole world is a rattrap and people rats? (The rattrap philosophy 1 mark; why the peddler loved and supported 2 marks)
  2. Why does the peddler sign himself as Captain von Stahle as he leaves the manor house? (The peddler’s life as a ‘captain’ at the manor-house 1 mark; the peddler’s realization 1 marks; his transformation 1 mark)
  3. The Ironmaster of Ramsjo Ironworks represents the character of the world in general when it comes to deal with a tramp. Discuss. (6 marks – Ironmaster’s excitement on meeting his old regimental ‘friend 2 marks – His change of reaction on facing the truth 2 marks – critical remarks 2 marks)
  4. Edla Wilmansson celebrated the most meaningful Christmas in her life by accommodating a vagabond at her home. Discuss. (3 marks)

Indigo

  1. ‘But Champaran did not begin as an act of defiance. It grew out of an attempt to alleviate the distress of large numbers of poor peasants.’ For what reasons do you agree with the above statement? (3 marks : defiance with the authorities 1 mark – Gandhiji’s concern for the plight of the poor people 1 mark – offering a helping hand to lift the peasants from the fear of the British 1 mark)
  2. ‘His was not a loyalty to abstractions. It was a loyalty to living, human beings.’ Explain. (3 marks : What is loyalty to abstractions/theories 1 mark – ) Gandhiji’s social work and politics were not two abstract sides of his life. He was not a man who gave speeches to impress his followers. He was a man of action. In all that he did, his aim was clearly humanitarian and practical. Unlike the modern day Indian politicians, Gandhiji ….
  3. Why did Gandhiji’s friends think that Charles Freer Andrews’ staying back in Champaran would help Gandhiji? Why was Gandhiji against this? (3 marks)
  4. Under what circumstances did the Champaran peasants go to seek the help of law? (3 marks) On hearing about the synthetic dye developed by Germany, the British landlords in Champaran agreed to end the irksome sharecropping agreement. For this they made the peasants pay them large amount of money. Later, when the peasants heard about the German dye, they saw that they had been fooled by the landlords. To get their money back, they sought the help of law.
  5. Why did Gandhiji chide the Indian lawyers in Champaran in their manipulating the cause of the peasants? (3 marks)

Going Places

  1. Did Sophie know that she was a liar? Why was she not able to put a check on her lies? What did she benefit from telling lies? (3 marks)
  2. What did Sophie think of the unknown world of Geoff? (3 mark)
  3. Why did Sophie go to the lovers’ park? (3 mark)
  4. How did Sophie’s mind traverse from a state of excitement to a state of defeat through a state of doubting Danny Casey’s not coming? (3 marks)
  5. How does A R Barton bring out the deceptive quality of mind through Sophie’s experience? (6 marks)
  6. What differences do you find between Sophie’s and Jansie’s characters and outlook?
  7. How would you describe the character and temperament of Sophie’s father?
  8. Why did Sophie like her brother Geoff more than anyone else? From her perspective, what did he symbolize?
  9. What socioeconomic background did Sophie belong to?
  10. Sophie’s dreams and disappointments are all in her mind. Discuss.
  11. It is natural for teenagers to have unrealistic dreams. What would you say are the benefits and disadvantages of such fantasizing?
  12. Elaborate Sophie’s mental transformations while waiting for ‘her’ Danny in the park, till she feels the ‘burden’ upon her.
  13. Bring out Sophie’s urge for being considered a grown up.
  14. Why didn’t Sophie get rid of her burden even though it clearly manifested in front of her in the park?
  15. Why did Sophie pretend to be sad when Jansie came to her asking if she had met Danny Casey?
  16. Do you think that Sophie was in constant rebellion with her family or with something else? If it was with something else, what was that? If it was with her family, what did she want to proved.

My Mother at Sixty Six

… and realized with pain
that she was as old as she looked
but soon put that thought away…
and looked out at Young trees sprinting
the merry children spilling out of their homes…

  1. What did the poet realize with pain? What was painful about the realization? (2 marks)
  2. How did the poet put ‘that thought’ away? Do you think that the poet was able to successfully put ‘that thought’ away? Why do you think so? (2 mark)
  3. Bring out the effect of contrast (a poetic device) in the stanza. (2 marks)
  4. Name the poem and the poet. (1 mark)

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum – Stephen Spender

  • Far from cities – slum –

The stunted, unlucky heir
of twisted bones, reciting a father’s gnarled disease,
His lesson, from his desk, at back of the dim class
One unnoted, sweet and young. His eyes live in a dream,

  1. Who is unlucky heir and what has he inherited?
  2. What is the stunted boy reciting?
  3. Who is sitting at the back of the dim classes?
  4. Why is the class room dim?

Surely, Shakespeare is wicked, the map a bad example,
with ships and sun and love tempting them to steal –
for lives that slyly turn in their cramped holes
from fog to endless night…

  1. Why is Shakespeare said to be wicked? OR How does Shakespeare tempt the children to steal? (1 mark)
  2. Why does the poet say that the slum-children’s life turn slyly in their homes? (1 mark)
  3. Why are the children’s homes said to be ‘cramped holes?’ (1 mark)
  4. What is the significance of ‘fog and endless night?’ (1 mark)

Break O break open till they break the town
And show the children to green fields,
and make their world run azure on gold sands,
And let their tongues
Run naked into books the white and green leaves open
History theirs whose language is the sun.

  1. What is the poet asking to break? Why? (2 marks)
  2. Why does the poet fear that the children would break the town? (1 mark)
  3. What will happen to the life of the children (gold sands or deserts) in the event of their being taken to the green fields? (1 mark)
  4. According to the poet, how can the slum children create history? (1 mark)

A Thing of Beauty

Therefore, on every morrow, are we wreathing
a flowery band to bind us to the earth…

  1. Why do we wreathe a flowery band every morning? (1 mark)
  2. What does the flowery band signify? (1 mark)
  3. How do things of beauty help us to wreathe a flowery band? (1 mark)

Spite of despondence,
Spite of inhuman dearth of noble natures,
Spite of gloomy days,
Spite of all the unhealthy and over-darkened ways made for our searching…

  1. What are the four spiteful things that destroy the things of beauty? (1 mark)
  2. What is spite of despondence? How does it ruin our beautiful life? (2 marks)
  3. How are noble natures affected in the absence of beautiful things? (1 mark)
  4. Why do people search for happiness in the over-darkened ways? (1 mark)

Keeping Quiet

Perhaps the earth can teach us
as when everything seems dead
and later proves to be alive.

  1. What does the earth teach?
  2. How should we change out character by taking lessons from the earth?
  3. Does the earth justify the importance of keeping quiet? How?

Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

When Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie
Still ringed with ordeals she was mastered by.
The tigers in the panel that she made will go on
Prancing, proud and unafraid.

  1. Why are Aunt Jennifer’s hands terrified? (1 mark)
  2. What was Aunt Jennifer mastered by? (1 mark)
  3. How does the poet present the symbolic element male chauvinism in the stanza? (2 marks)
  4. What will happen to Aunt Jennifer’s tigers after her death? (1 mark)
  5. How is the fate of the tigers different from that of Aunt Jennifer’s? (1 marks)
  6. How does the stanza immortalize Aunt Jennifer’s trials? (1 mark)

Tiger King

Author – Kalki :: Protagonist – King Jung Jung Bahadur (the Tiger King)
Jung Jung Bahadur – astrologer – predictions – British officer – secretary – carcass – photographed – diamond rings – dewan – wooden sliver – pierce – third birthday – inflammation – flared – three surgeons – operation successful, the king is dead – 1ooth tiger’s revenge.

  1. Why did the Maharaja go on a tiger hunt? (3 marks)
  2. Why did the Maharaja decline the British officer’s suggestion of getting a photograph with the carcass (dead body) of the tiger killed by him? (3 marks)
  3. How did the Maharaja’s behavior change when there remained only one single tiger to be killed? (3 marks)
  4. Why does the reader feel like laughing at the Maharaja’s death? (3 marks)

The Enemy

Dr. Sadao Hoki – Hana – America – prejudices – Sadao’s patriotic father – the old General – Sadao’s jobs and responsibilities – Tom – US Navy – bullet near the kidney – operation – anesthetics – 

  1. Dr. Sadao was happier than many other men at his time. Comment. (3 marks)
  2. Why did Dr. Sadao decide to take care of the American POW? (3 marks)
  3. Why did the servants leave Sadao’s family? (3 marks)
  4. How did the American prisoner of war look at the unexpected mercy the Japanese doctor and his family was giving him? (3 marks)

Should Wizard Hit Mommy

  1. What turn of events brought to utter disappointment at the end of Jack’s story-telling? (3 marks)
  2. Why was Jo not happy with the ending of her father’s story? (3 marks)
  3. Why was Jack very particular about having a disabled son like Roger and a stubborn mother as his mother in all his stories? (3 marks)

On the Face of It

  1. What forced Derry to remain in his self-imposed prison, his home? (3 marks)
  2. Why did Derry feel out of place on being encountered by Mr. Lamb? (3 marks)
  3. “It ate my face up. It ate me up.” What makes Derry say this? (3 marks)
  4. How does Mr. Lamb imply by the concept of his weed garden? (3 marks)
  5. How did Mr. Lamb transform Derry’s pessimistic (negative) views about himself, the society and the world? (6 marks)

Evans Tries an O Level

  1. How did Evans manipulate the psyche of the four officers – the Governor, Jackson, Stephens and detective Carter? (6 marks)
    1. Jackson – Pity
    2. Governor – Governor’s boastful character
    3. Stephens – Pride
    4. Carter – Irresponsibility to details; blind faith in a priest/religion

Memories of Childhood

The Invisible Man

  1. What led to Dr. Cuss’ running to Mr. Bunting’s house in great horror? (6 marks)
  2. What were Teddy Henfrey’s impressions about the mysterious visitor who had lodged at the Coach and Horses? (How Griffin behaved with Teddy 3 marks; how Teddy felt about Griffin 3 marks)
  3. How did the mysterious visitor at Coach and Horse respond to the arrival of his luggage? (The arrival of the luggage 1 mark; the size of the luggage 1 mark; Griffin’s excitement and the dog-bite 2 marks; Griffin arranging the crates and bottles 2 marks)
  4. Describe the sequence of events at Jolly Cricketers. (6 Marks)
  5. Compare and contrast the characters of Griffin and Dr. Kemp. (6 marks)
  6. The story of the Invisible Man is about human greed and its consequences. Elaborate. (6 marks)
  7. What were the strange feelings that Mrs. Hall had to overcome after admitting the mysterious stranger? (Griffin’s appearance 2 marks; Griffin’s strange demands 2 marks; Mrs. Hall’s apprehension 2 marks)

Writing Section

Notice

  1. You school is organizing a Hygiene Awareness Campaign in your city by going door to door circulating posters, pamphlets and staging street plays on 14th, 15th and 16th of the next month. The Principal has asked you, Anna or Anahita, head-girl/boy, Al Ameen School, Rawalpindi, to draft a notice inviting contributions from students who can design posters and pamphlets. A student can prepare as many posters and pamphlets as possible that can be submitted to the librarian latest by the 10th of the next month. (4 marks)
  2. Write a notice informing the residents of your colony about a meeting to be held next Sunday to learn the operation of a self-decomposer machine for kitchen and home. A team from the manufacturer will be conducting the demonstration and class. You are Ms Jyoty, Secretary, Palampur Residence Colony. (4 marks)
  3. Write a notice informing students about a one-day Yoga Training Class conducted by Amen Yogis for all the students from class 4 to 12. Participation is compulsory. Invent all relevant information such as date and time, venue and school’s name, etc. You are Nikita, Manav Vidyalaya, Kiddingtown, Delhi. (4 marks)

Advertisement

  1. Heritage School, Chennai needs a smart, experienced English teacher for secondary classes, male or female. Draft a classified advertisement seeking eligible candidates who can appear for an interview at the Principal’s office in a week’s time with all original credentials.
  2. Design a colourful display advertisement to promote your newly opening salon, SOPHIA, in the city. Your contact number is 09810740061 and website is sophiasalon.org. Customers can contact your representatives on 5656-35-288.
  3. Write a classified ad giving details of Mr. Raju Rastogi, a mentally retarded person, missing since 3 pm, 12th March, 2016. You are Ganesh Chaturvedi, director, Men Tell, a hospital for the mentally retarded patients. Phone number – 9810740061.
  4. Raju Rastogi wishes to change his name to Raj Rustom from all his certificates and records for personal reasons. Write a classified ad for the same with all the relevant details such as present name, parents’ name and address to the name he wishes to change to. Sign as Raju Rastogi.

Invitations

  1. You have been invited by Ms Gulam Nabeeza, 3/4 Snow Park, Bangalore to attend her son Mathur’s marriage with Nafthali George on the 17th of November. Unfortunately for you and your family, the invitation cannot be accepted due to your mother’s sudden demise a day ago. Write a reply to the aforesaid invitation, thanking and explaining. (Letter style. 4 marks)
  2. The Principal, Heritage School, Chennai, has asked you to draft a formal invitation to be sent to the parents and well-wishers of your school to its 10th Anniversary to be celebrated on the 5th of January, 2016. Draft a formal, printed invitation on the Principal’s behalf.

Letter of Inquiry

  1. Write a letter of inquiry to the Manager, ABC Books, Delhi, for the supply of five hundred novels and two hundred educational books for your personal library. Most of the books inquired are classic collections. Make all relevant queries. You are Akansha Gupta, B 335, Ashok Nagar, Gurgaon. (6 marks)

Job Application Letter

  1. You are Medha/Madhav, 4/D, Stray Road, Chennai. You have worked as a teacher in a school in Delhi for five years and now you are looking for a job in Chennai. You are cheered to read the above advertisement. Write a job application letter to the Principal, Heritage School, Chennai with the following attachments enclosed : Curriculum Vitae (CV)

Letter to the Editor

  1. Write a letter to the editor, The Indian Express, Patna, elaborating the plight of children in cities and towns. Mention how they suffer, who bring them to child labour and why the governments are irresponsible about this. Enumerate a few suggestions and solutions.

Article

  1. You think that giving vocational training to young men and women helps them secure their life at a very early age. Write an article in 150-200 words.
  2. Write an article on the Importance of Clean India Campaign.

Speech

  1. Women are really assaulted, harassed and tortured in India and elsewhere. Although there are a number of organizations working for freedom, the fair-sex is not fairly treated. Write a speech for your school’s assembly on the occasion of World Woman’s Day.
  2. You are Medha/Madhav, a newly appointed English teacher at Heritage School, Chennai. You have been requested by one of your students to write a speech on “women empowerment in Modern India.” Write a speech in 150 words. Follow FCCS pattern with as many questions and the use of second person.
  3. Write a speech for your school assembly discussing, fussing, complaining, shouting, and questioning the unchecked use of petroleum oil and products that cause alarming degeneration to the earth’s life expectancy. Accuse the oil companies that haul the introduction of solar energy for commercial use for their greed. You are Peter/Petra. Respected one and all, first of all I thank you for giving me audience to a burning topic that concerns every one of us – a concern that goes beyond politics and religion, beyond language and territory, beyond the rich and the poor. Why aren’t we running our cars and buses on solar energy?

Debate

  1. November 8 2016 saw one of the most unexpected turns of India’s recent history with the Government demonetizing rupees 500 and rupees 1000 currency notes. Write a debate supporting or criticizing the move. You are Mithun Arora, class 12.

Reading and Note Making

Reading – Note Making

Suddenly I hear from my neighborhood uncivilized chattering and murmuring. Unrefined wordings from unrefined mouths that are more accustomed to cursing. I ignore such for a while but then look for the owners of the sounds. I find men and women whom I had never met in my neighborhood. I saw then, that, they were my new neighbors. Over the months I realized that Delhi was no more mine. It is the center of India’s migration. Here people migrate from all states as businessmen, transferred bank employees, government officers, police officers and more alarmingly, vagabonds and refugees from the borders.

Well, the earth as such is not reserved for any people. Everyone has the right to movement, especially in one’s own land. However, what worries everyone is that the distribution of people is not happening in the right way. This crisis is called migration.

In 1951, the urban population in India was 62 million people, 17% of the total population. By 2011, the urban population was 377 million, or 31%. By 2025, 42.5% of the population is expected to be urban. Even though the percentage of the population living in urban areas is quite scanty compared to developed countries, their presence is causing a lot of problems: unemployment and underemployment, and shortage of basic amenities like water supply, sanitation, sewerage, and electricity. The main problem is housing. Cities have very large slum populations. Mumbai has almost 50% of the population living in slums. Kolkata has 32% of the population living in slums and semi slums and Delhi has 50%, a population of 12.5 million people in the year 2016.

Large numbers of young people are migrating because rural India is saturated and cannot provide employment opportunities for a growing population. Many end up as rag pickers or casual construction workers. They come alone and then bring their relatives or friends. It is a chain migration. Most women migrants have migrated after marriage. In north India, women are not supposed to marry a man from the same village. So invariably marriage means migration. Joining family members is the third reason. First, the husband gets employment and settles. Then, if he can get a decent house, he brings his family. Finally, migration for education also takes place.

Youngsters are not able to get enough land to cultivate. Unlike in European countries, where only the eldest inherits property, here all children get a share in their father’s property. That leads to division of landholdings. Many landholdings have become so small that they are uneconomical. There are not many other employment opportunities in rural areas so that leads to migration, not just to urban areas but also from less agriculturally developed states like Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan to ‘Green Revolution’ agricultural areas like western Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.

  1. Prepare notes. Use meaningful abbreviation.
  2. Write a summary in 80 words.

Read the article below and answer the questions that follow:

Being in the business of fashion, one is aware of the unethical labor-practices being followed and the hazardous waste-products being dumped on land and in water in order to produce low cost products. Sadly, corporate social responsibility is being neglected. Our environment is getting destroyed, resulting in rampant global warming. Our skilled workers are ignored on one side while they are losing their jobs on the other.

It is quite sad that the streaks and lines handmade by our skilled artisans are now done by the tongs of a machine at the speed of lightning. In the fast paced world, art of heart finds no place and demand. In order to earn a living, our traditional artists let go of their skills and take up menial jobs resulting in the death of art and culture.

The prime concern of governments should be a beautiful and safe environment alongside taking care of economical-empowerment of the skilled artisans. If India’s heart lies in the villages, as long as India’s identity is colored by traditional art and crafts, it is evident that a new concept of fashionista – renewable luxury – should be the word of the century. Fashion @ cost of Zero means updating and excelling India’s fashion sector – from earring to wearing. India has to mind the gap – the gap created between purely traditional and purely alien.

It is the duty of government and individual to find ways and means to promote environmental-friendly manufactured products by following waste management practices. Governments should, by all means, focus on renewing the community through local employment and providing villages with means of sustenance, promoting the art and cultural heritage of a country and save it from an untimely end.

With the help of qualitative methods, one can find out the factors that would affect the branding of a sustainable luxury product side by side with street brands. With skilled questioning, it can be found out how handloom products can be introduced and sustained in the market. This methodology aims to eliminate any kind of coercion, whatever of its kinds, upon the free thinking fashion-makers and blenders. It goes without saying that India’s traditional fashion concepts need to be rendered new with that sort of blending where nothing is lost but much is added to the past’s sheen.

  1. Prepare notes. Use meaningful abbreviation.
  2. Write a summary in 80 words.

Reading Section 2

Read the article below and answer the questions that follow:

If you are not mistaken, you are writing the first paper of your class 12 Board exams at present. From this line onward you will be reading questions after questions that will test your reading, comprehending, writing and grammar skills although there are no grammar related questions for CBSE Core students. These questions are very important for you because their answers will define you in the coming years in your academic time line and career. 3 hours that will now pass like three minutes. Feeling a little worried? Please relax and feel your pulses. Very high?  Thank God for the pulse being active and let’s begin the exam.

Now you have more than 3 hours still left owing to the additional 15 minutes prepended since 2009 for reading passages. However, you are not going to spend your bonus 15 minutes reading because the reading passages MAY put your confidence down and turn your excitement off. So, are we going to take a u turn and attempt the reading section at the end? Perfectly said. We will be following a C B A pattern, that’s, Literature first, Writing second and Reading last. Let’s be ready.

Moving to the writing section, the first is a 4 marker advertisement or invitation combo out of which only one needs be done. It is always like this although in the past notice writing was inseparable from the writing section. Make sure that you choose advertisement over invitation or notice over poster because of the simplicity of advertisement and notice. If you can help, avoid poster and display ads as they require you to dedicate more time than the others. Then there are the six six markers – formal letters of various kinds such as letter of inquiry, reply to inquiry, placing order, cancelling an order, complaint letter and job application letter. Again, let’s not welcome the job application as it takes more than 15 minutes in the least whereas letter placing order takes 5 minutes to complete. However, if you are a fast writer, you could sing a song with job application letters. That done, we have to deal with a few big guns – article, speech and debate. While speech weighs heavier than debate, article goes without a choice. Remember, a speech is a spicy article with as many as 10 questions and addressing the audience in person. Well, your audience is your teacher!

The next stage is literature section. You well know that there are answers that carry 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 marks. There is nothing like word limit but there is line limit. For 1 marker questions you need to write in just 20 words or two lines. For questions that carry 2 marks, write as many as 5 lines. Simply put, multiply the mark with 2 to get the line limit. It is baseless that teachers deduct your marks if words happen to exceed or otherwise.

Another dear advise for most of you who think ‘checkers do not read the whole paper word by word’ is that it is not so. They, unfortunately, do read, especially if your presentation is eye catching. This might make you think of leaving your paper in a mess but that applies only to those who expect or need marks in 60s or less. If your handwriting is bad, say, the human teacher who will be so unfortunate to check your paper will get bored, angry and sometimes mad. He or she will not spend an hour checking your paper. All that such teachers often do is ‘weigh’ the paper and mark you down by a multiplication called number of pages multiplied by the face value of the paper. The multiplied value in this case is never more than 70. If you are happy with such a low mark, there is no action required.

  1. Prepare notes. Use meaningful abbreviation.
  2. Write a summary in 80 words.

Reading Section 3

“The rich will not suffer, as corruptly acquired fortunes have almost all been converted to shares, gold and real estate. But the poor, who make up the bulk of the nation’s 1.3 billion people, will lose out. They don’t generally have bank accounts and are often paid in cash. For them, getting to a bank and queueing for hours will cost money and time they don’t have. In less than a week the policy has reportedly claimed more than a dozen lives. The government says that it will take weeks to sort out the problems,” an editorial of the Guardian said. “Mr Modi’s scheme has more in common with the failed experiments of dictatorships which led to runaway inflation, currency collapse and mass protests. While Mr Modi campaigned to end corruption, it would have been better if the government had updated its antiquated tax system to realize such a task,” it added.

According to The New York Times, cash is king in India. It is used in an estimated 78 per cent of transactions, compared with 20 per cent to 25 per cent in industrialised countries like Britain and the United States. Many people do not have bank accounts or credit cards, and even those who do often must use cash because many businesses don’t accept other forms of payment. The change, however, has thrown the economy into turmoil, with many millions of people forced to line up at banks to deposit or exchange their old bills.

Questions

  1. Why does The Guardian assume that Prime Minister Modi’s decision to demonetize high denomination currencies would practically do no good? (2 marks)
  2. Why does the New York Times say that cash is king in India? (2 mark)
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Biju John

Biju John is an educational writer, educator and the author of OM - The Otherwise Men.

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