Summary & Notes
- What is a Utopian Society?
A vision of a society that is so ideal that it is not poss to as a feminist .FEible practically and was first visualized by the French artist Frederic Sorrieu.
- Explain the word Suffrage.
Suffrage means the right to vote . men and women without property were not given the right to vote due to which many opposing movements started started demanding equal rights in 1848.
- What do you mean by the term Feminist?
A person who supports feminism is referred to as a feminist .Feminism is a range of political movements , ideology and social movements that share a common goal : to define and advance political ,economical , personal and social rights for women.
- Explain the term Allegory?
Allegory is a literary term used when an abstract term (for eg greed ,envy ,freedom , liberty or a nation ) is expressed through a person or a thing . A story with an allegorical reference has two meanings, one literal and symbolic.
- Explain the idea of ‘la patric ‘ and ‘le citoyen.’
The French revolutionaries had made efforts to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people . The idea of la patric (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasising the content of unity among the French citizen .
- What was the name of the artist who created the image of a democratic and social republic for the first time? Explain his vision.
A French artist , Frederic Sorrieu, in 1848, prepared a series of four prints. He visualised a dream of a world made up of democratic and social republics. The print shows the people of Europe and America – men and women of all ages and social classes marching in a long line and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty.
- What changes did French Revolution bring in France?
France was a full grown territorial state in 1789 under the monarch rule and the idea of nationalism came with the French Revolution in the same year. There came a series of political and constitutional changes because of the revolution and led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens. It also proclaimed that it was “the people” only who would constitute the nation and therefore shape its destiny.
- What were the measures taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of nationality or collective idea among the French citizens?
There were various measures and practices introduced by French revolutionaries starting from the idea of “La patrie” ( The fatherland) and “le citoyen”(The citizen) stressing on the concept of united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A new tricoloured Flag was chosen to replace the former royal one. Nation assembly was formed by electing The Estate General by some active citizens. In the name of the nation, new hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs were commemorated. A centralised administrative system was created and uniform laws for all the citizens. Also a standardised system of weights and measures was adopted. Regional dialects were discouraged and French became the common language of the nation.
- What were the Jacobin clubs?
The French revolutionaries declared that it was the mission of France to help other people of Europe and become a single nation. The series of new events in France reached the different cities of Europe and the students and other members of the educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns made way for French armies. The armies moved to Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s and began to carry the idea of nationalism.
- Explain what do you understand by the Napoleonic code.
Napoleon had a wide range of territory under his control and he brought many reforms that had already been introduced in France. Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France and introduced monarchy. In the administrative department, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system rational and efficient. The Civil code of 1804- also known as the napoleon code removed all the privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the rights to property. Napoleon simplified administrative divisions , abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. Transport and communication system was improved. Businessmen and small scale producers of goods were given a uniform law , standardised weights , measures and a common national currency to facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
- Explain the term Liberalism.
National unity in the early nineteen century was closely related to the ideology of liberalism. The word “liber” is derived from a Latin root meaning free. For the middle class people, liberalism stood for freedom of an individual and equality before the law. Politically, it emphasised the government by consent. By the French Revolutionists, liberalism stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges and a constitution and a representative government through the parliament.
- Who enjoyed the right to vote during the 19th and 20th century in France?
The right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property- owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a short period of time, all adult males under the Jacobin enjoyed suffrage ( right to vote). Throughout the nineteenth century, there was constant opposition demanding equal political rights to men and women without property.
- What happened after the defeat of Napoleon in Europe?
After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were overpowered by the spirit of conservatism which is referred to a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition , established institutions and customs and prefer gradual development to quick change. They believed that modernisation could strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy.
- Write a note on Giuseppe Mazzini?
Due to the upcoming theories, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground. Many secret societies were created in European states to train revolutionists and spread their idea. Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Genoa in 1807. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. When he was 24 years old, he was sent to exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He also founded two more secret societies , one was Young Italy in Marseilles, and the other, Young Europe in Berne. Mazzini believed that God had made nations to be the natural units of mankind and Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic with a wider alliance and this unification would lead to Italian liberty.
- How did romantic imagination create a feeling of nationalism?
Romanticism was a cultural movement which developed national sentiments through art and poetry, stories and music. Romantic artists and poets made their efforts to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a common cultural past as the basis of a nation. Language played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. The Polish language was forced out of the schools and the Russian language was imposed. Other romantics such as German philosopher, Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people. It was through folk songs , folk poetry and folk dance that true spirit of the nation was popularized.
- Explain the revolution of the liberals. OR Explain the revolution of 1848.
In the year 1848, in many European countries, a revolution was led by the educated middle classes. In German regions, a large number of political associations whose members were middle class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all German National Assembly. The elected representatives were 831 and they marched in the Frankfurt parliament held in the church of St. Paul. They made a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy, subject to the parliament. The crown on these terms were offered to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, king of Prussia, but he rejected the offer and joined the other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. The parliament was dominated by the middle class. After resisting the demands of the workers and artisans, the parliament lost their support and soon got disbanded.
- How was Germany unified?
Among the middle class Germans, a lot of nationalist feelings were seen in 1848 due to which they tried to reunite different regions of German alliances into a nation state governed by an elected parliament. This liberal initiative to nation building was repressed by combined forces of the monarchy and the military supported by the large land owners (Junkers) of Prussia. Prussia took over the leadership of the movement for national unification. Ottovan Bismark was the architect of this process and Prussia’s chief minister who carried out the process with the help of his army and bureaucracy. Three wars were held over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France leaving behind Prussian victory and completing the process of unification. William I in 1871 was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles. The new former state had a great impact on modernising legal, judicial, banking and currency system in Germany.
- How was Britain formed?
Britain was not formed because of some sudden upheaval or revolution but it was long drawn process. There were different ethnic groups in the Britain Isles such as English, Welsh, Scot and Irish. They had various cultures and political traditions, and grew in wealth, importance and power. The Act of Union between England and Scotland resulted in formation of “United Kingdom of Great Britain”. The British Parliament was then dominated by English members and soon Scotland distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
- How were the nations visualised?
In the 19thcentury a way was found out personify a nation. Nations were at that time portrayed as a female figure. The female figure did not stand for any particular women in real rather it was an abstract idea used as an allegory for the nation. The French revolution artists used the female allegory to portray idea such as liberty, justice and republic, representing through specific object and symbols.
- Why did nationalist tension emerge in the Balkans?
In Europe after 1871, a serious source of rationalist tension grew in the area called the Balkans. It was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising of modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the slaves. With the spread of the idea of romantic nationalism, the Balkans got disintegrated with the Ottoman empire and made the region very explosive. One by one, the European subject nationalities broke away and declares independence and political rights, the Bulgarian’s made attempt to win back their long lost independence. The Bulgarian became the area of intense conflict. Each wanted to gain more territory at the expense of other. This lead to a series of wars in the region and finally the first World War.
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Questions & Answers
Briefly explain the unification of Italy.
Italy just as Germany was also scattered into political fragmentation. In the middle of nineteenth century Italy was too divided into seven states out of which only Sardinia – Piedmont was ruled by an Italian Princely house. The north was ruled by Austrian Habsburgs. The centre by the pope and the southern dominated by bourbon king of Spain. Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations. During the 1830’s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian republic. A secret society called young Italy was formed for achieving his goals but the failure of revolutionary uprising in 1831 and 48 was meant that the mantle now fell under the ruler, victor Emmanuel 2 to unify the states through war chief minister, Cavour led the movement to unify Italy through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France. Cavour and Sardinia – Piedmont , succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces. A large member of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Mazzini joined the troop and marched into South Italy winning the support of local peasants drove out the Spanish rulers. Thus, unifying Italy under liberalisation Ideology.