Summary & Notes
- What are resources?
Everything that is present in our environment which can satisfy our needs ,under three conditions – it should be technologically accessible ,economically feasible and culturally acceptable is termed as a ‘ resources ‘ .
- How are resources classified?
The resources are classified on the basis of origin, on the base of exhaustibility, on the base of owenership and on the base of the status of development.
- On the base of origin:
- On the basis of exhaustibility
- Non renewable
- On the basis of ownership
- On the basis of status of development
- Development stock
- On the base of origin:
- Explain what are the biotic and abiotic resources.
On the basis of origin of resources the resources are divided into two sub types – biotic resources are those resources which we get from the biosphere and have life such as human being, flora and fauna , fisheries and livestock etc . Abiotic resources are those resources which are made up of non living things for example. Rocks ,metals etc.
- On the basis of Exhaustibility how are resources classified?
On the basis of exhaustibility the resources are classified as renewable and non renewable resources. Renewable resources are those resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes such as solar and wind energy, water, forests, and wildlife. Renewable resources can further be divided into continuous or biological. Non renewable resources are those resources that occur over a long period of time. Minerals , metals and fossil fuels are example of such resources . It is further divided into renewable resources such as metals which can be reused and recycled and exhaustible resources which take million of years to form.
- What are individual resources?
Ownership of these resources are in the hands of the individuals . Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by the government against the revenue payments . Similarly in urban areas people own plots, houses and other property . Also pastoral lands ,ponds, wells are some other examples of resources owned by individuals .
- Name the community owned resources?
There are many resources which are used by all the members of a village or a community and are accessible to all. Public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds in urban areas and grazing grounds, burial grounds, wells and pounds in rural areas are examples of community owned resources.
- What are national resources?
All the resources in a nation technically belong to the country and can be termed as a national resource. The country has legal powers to acquire any private property for public’s goods. All the minerals, water bodies, forests, wildlife, and the oceanic areas and land within the political boundaries are termed as resources belonging to the nation.
- Explain the term Sustainable Development.
In a country – development should take place without damaging the environment and the development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.
- What is the key method of resource planning?
“There is enough for everybody’s needs but not for anybody’s greed” as said by Mahatma Gandhi. Irrational consumptions and over utilization of resources may lead to socio economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems resources conservation at various levels is important .
- How can land be utilized as a resource?
Land resources are used for the following purposes.
- To increase the forest cover of an area .
- Land no available for cultivation
- Barren and waste land .
- Land up to non-agricultural uses example buildings, roads and factories
- Other uncultivated land .
- Permanent pastures and grazing lands.
- Land under miscellaneous trees crops and groves.
- Cultural waste land(waste uncultivated land not used for more than 5 years).
- Fallow land.
- Current fallows.
- Other areas that current fallows.
- Net sown area.
- What is known as gross cropped areas?
Area sown more than once in an agricultural year+ net sown area is known as gross cropped areas.
- Explain the land use pattern in India.
Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq. Kilometres. Land use data however is available only 93 percent. The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is 80 percent of total area in Punjab and Haryana is less than 10% in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
- What measures are taken for land degradation and conservation?
Our land provides 90% of our basic needs for food shelter and clothing. At present there are about 130 million hectares degraded land in India. Human activities such as deforestation overgrazing, mining and quarrying have contributed to land degradation. Ways to solve land degradation:
- A forestation and proper management of grazing
- Planting shelter belts of plants
- Control on overgrazing
- Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes
- Proper management of wasteland and control of mining activities
- Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas
- What is soil?
Soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil up to a few centimetres in depth when various forces in nature such as change in temperature, action of running water, wind, rain and activities of decomposers take place, then soil is formed. It is a medium of plant growth and supports different of forms of living organisms on earth.
- Name the different layers of soil.
The soil is divided into different layers. Starting from the lowermost layer, is the un weathered parent rock bed which just has huge pieces of rock. Then is the substratum weathered parent rock material. The third layer is the subsoil weathered rock, sand, silt and clay. The topmost is the upper soil layer which is visible to us with our naked eyes.
- Explain what is alluvial soil.
Our entire northern plains are made up of the alluvial soil. These are deposited by three important rivers of the Himalayas – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. It is also found in the coastal plains, particularly because of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri. The alluvial soil consists of various proportion, sand, silt and clay.
- What is black soil famous for growing?
Black soil also known as regur soil is ideal for growing cotton. Black cotton soil is found in the Deccan trap (Basalt) regions and is made up of lava flows. It is made up extremely fine clay material and well known for their capacity to hold moisture. Black soil is rich in nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
- Explain Laterite soil.
Laterite has been derived from the Latin word, ‘later’ which means brick. It develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. The humus content is low because the decomposers like bacteria get killed due to high temperature. This soil is mainly found in Karnataka ,Kerala ,Tamil Nadu , Madhya Pradesh ,Odisha and Assam. It is useful in growing tea and coffee ,and cashew nuts .
- Write a brief note on arid soil.
Arid soil range from red to brown in color. It is saline and sandy in texture. In some areas the salt content is so high that the common salt is obtained by evaporating the water. Law in humus and moisture if irrigated properly it becomes cultivable as has been in the cases of western Rajasthan.
- Explain the methods of soil conservation.
The wearing away of soil cover and subsequently washing down is described as soil erosion. The process of soil formation and soil erosion go hand in hand and generally there is a balance between the tow but sometimes the balance is disturbed due to various human activities for example deforestation, overgrazing, construction, and mining etc. Also natural sources such as wind, glacier, water lead to soil erosion. Deep channels such as gullies and unfit land for cultivation know as bad land and washing away of top soil know as sheet erosion as a result of the same. Some methods of soil conservation are as follows.
- Ploughing along the contour lines decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
- Restricting terrace farming.
- Increasing strip cropping that is strips of grass are left to grow between the crops which breaks up the force of wind.
- Planting lines of trees to create shelter known as shelter belts contribute significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes.
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