Do you know why your reading answers sometimes go wrong? It is because of a group of words called abstract and uncertain words, especially indefinite adjectives and adverbs.

Take the expression “Not more than.’ This is not conclusive. It doesn’t speak clearly. “Such medicines do not more good than those mentioned in the first paragraph” is such a statement that creates more confusion than sense. Sometimes they use expressions like “it doesn’t go without any effect…” There are double negatives and that makes a positive effect. Similarly, when you say few and a few or little and a little, there are variations in their quantity. When you say enough, that is enough for some people but that is not enough for others. 1\$ is enough for a beggar but not for A millionaire.

###### Expressions of Uncertainty?
• About / around
Both words express nothing for sure. “About 200” can mean 190 to 210. It can be even between 180 and 220.
• Less likely, likely, more likely
Mean less possible, possible and more possible. As the words possible and probable are themselves not sure of themselves, we can never know what all those expressions really mean. The case with “more likely, not likely and less likely” are all expressions of uncertainty.
• More or Less
Who has authority to draw a line between more and less?
• “It is not unknown” which means it is known.
Double negatives and double positives create their opposite effect.
• Few, a few, little, a little
Few and little are close to zero/nill while a few and a little refer to somewhere below “some.”
##### Expressions of Uncertainty

Your score in reading (and listening) mostly depends on your hold on the expressions of certainty and uncertainty. If you understand how badly they confuse us, you know how to find the correct choice. I will explain with an example:

About 5 to 20 percent of people with chronic hepatitis C will develop cirrhosis.”

In the statement above, there is an expression of uncertainty (about) and an expression of certainty (will). It is like a + and -. That means, when a plus and minus come together, it becomes minus. Analyzing the statement, it is evidently a confusing statement.

Expressions of Uncertainty

• Almost,
• Can / cannot
• Close to,
• In round numbers
• Likely
• Least likely
• May / may not
• More or less
• Near to,
• Nearly,
• Not far off,
• Objectively
• Or
• Nor
• Probably
• Possibly
• Potentially
• Roughly
• Relatively
• Something like
• Subjectively

Expressions of Certainty

• Is / am / are
• Was / were
• Will / shall
• No / yes
• Do / do not

Expressions of uncertain certainty (a condition that is hard to determine)

• Can / cannot
• Should / should be / should not

Unfamiliar Expressions

Apart from the 3 expressions above, there is a fourth one – unfamiliar expressions or words that are not known to us. This includes all the words that are unfamiliar to us. Here is a list of medical terms you should learn by heart.

1. Benign: Not cancerous
2. Malignant: Cancerous
3. Anti-inflammatory: Reduces swelling, pain, and soreness (such as ibuprofen or naproxen)
4. Body Mass Index (BMI): Body fat measurement based on height and weight
5. Biopsy: A tissue sample for testing purposes
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure
7. Hypertension: High blood pressure
8. Lesion: Wound, sore, or cut
9. Noninvasive: Doesn’t require entering the body with instruments; usually simple
10. Outpatient: Check in and check out the same day
11. Inpatient: Plan to stay overnight for one or more days
12. In remission: Disease is not getting worse; not to be confused with being cured
13. Membrane: Thin layer of pliable tissue that serves as a covering or lining or connection between two structures
14. Acute: Sudden but usually short (e.g., acute illness)
15. Angina: Pain in the chest related to the heart that comes and goes
16. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): Heartburn
17. Cellulitis: Inflamed or infected tissue beneath the skin
18. Epidermis: Outermost layer of skin
19. Neutrophils: Most common type of white blood cell
20. Edema: Swelling
21. Embolism: Blood clot
22. Sutures: Stitches
23. Polyp: Mass or growth of thin tissue
24. Compound fracture: Broken bone that protrudes through the skin
25. Comminuted fracture: Broken bone that shatters into many pieces.

#### Here are some more medical terminology prefixes:

• Brachi/o – Arm
• Cardi/o – Heart
• Cyt/o – Cell
• Derm/a, derm/o, dermat/o – Skin
• Encephal/o – Brain
• Gastr/o – Stomach
• Hemat/o – Blood
• Hist/o, histi/o – Tissue
• Intestin/o – Intestine
• Lapar/o – Abdomen, loin or flank
• My/o – Muscle
• Neur/o – Nerve
• Ocul/o – Eye
• Ophthalm/o – Eyes
• Or/o – Mouth
• Ot/o – Ear
• Pulmon/o – Lungs

And for those of you who aren’t up on your Latin:

• Mono/uni – One
• Bi – Two
• Tri – Three
• Ab – Away from
• Ad – Toward
• Ecto/exo – Outside
• Endo – Inside
• Epi – Upon

Here are some examples of common medical terminology with suffixes:

• Pain terms end with -algia.
• Blood terms end in -emia.
• Inflammation is -itis.
• A breaking down is -lysis.
• Relating to disease is -opathy.
• Breathing terms end with -pnea.

More Terms

• Anatomy: Parts of the body and its general structure.
• Gynecology: Study and treatment of the female urinary tract and reproductive organs.
• Hematology: Treatment of blood diseases and malignancies.
• Microbiology: Related to bacterial and viral infections.
• Neonatal: Special care for newborn babies with high dependency needs.
• Neurology: Related to the disorders of the brain, spinal cord, or general nervous system.
• Oncology: Chemotherapy treatments for cancer.
• Pathology: The names for disorders and diseases.
• Pediatrics: Medical assistance of infants.
• Psychiatry: The study and treatment of mental disorders.
• Rheumatology: Related to musculoskeletal disorders (bones, joints, muscles, etc.).
• Surgery: Physical operative procedures.
• Urology: Related to problems with the bladder and kidneys.
• Abdominal – Abdomen
• Cranial – Skull
• Digital – Fingers and toes
• Femoral – Thigh
• Gluteal – Buttock
• Inguinal – Groin
• Lumbar – Loin
• Mammary – Breast
• Nasal – Nose
• Pectoral – Chest
• Thoracis – Chest
• Ventral – Stomach

#### A

• Abdomen The main body cavity between the chest and the groins.
• Abrasion Scraping of the skin
• Abscess Collection of pus in cavity
• Acetonemia A disorder of metabolism which results in high levels of acetone in blood. Also known as ketosis Modern)
• Acetonuria A disorder of metabolism which results in high levels of acetone in the urine. Also known as ketonuria
• Acholia Absence of bile, associated with jaundice
• Achondroplasia Dwarfism
• Acidosis Increased acidity of blood
• Acid urine Increased acidity of urine
• Acnathosis Thickened skin
• Acne Inflammation of the glands of the skin, causing formation of pustules, usually on the face
• Addisons Disease Severe disease of kidney causing incurable anaemia and bronzed colouration of the skin
• Adenitis Inflammation of lymph glands (lymph nodes)
• Adenoids Inflammation of the small gland-like appendages at the back of the nose
• Adenoma Benign tumour of a gland
• Adherent Often post-operative condition whereby scar tissue becomes stuck to the bone in the joint.
• Ague & sequela Intermittent fever, in which there are alternating periods of chills and fever
• Albuminuria A disease of the kidneys marked by appearance of albumin in the urine.
• Alkaptonuria A rare genetic metabolic disorder
• Alopecia Absence of hair, baldness
• Amaurosis Blindness caused by loss of nerve power
• Amblyopia Indistinct vision Lazy eye
• Amentia Absence of intellect
• Amyloid Degeneration of tissues, often of the liver
• Amyloid liver Degeneration of the liver
• Amyotonia Lack of muscle tone
• Anaemia Deficiency of red blood cells
• Anasarca Accumulation of watery fluid in the tissues, leading to swelling
• Anencephaly Congenital deformity of the brain
• Aneurism A tumour of an artery due to location dilatation usually with rupture of lining. A localized, blood-filled dilation (balloon-like bulge) of a blood vessel caused by disease or weakening of the vessel wall
• Angina Pain in the heart region
• Angioma Tumour composed of blood vessels
• Ankylosis Bony union of joint after injury or disease
• Anorexia Lack of appetite or abhorrence of food
• Anuria Suppression of urine
• Aphasia Loss of ability to use or recognise the correct words, although words are known
• Aphemia Inability to use the muscles of speech
• Aphonia Loss of voice
• Appendectomy Operation to remove appendix
• Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix, a small rudimentary attachment to the large intestine.
• Appendix Appendage of intestines
• Arch foot Abnormally high instep
• Artery Blood vessel which carries blood away from the heart
• Arthrectomy Scraping of a joint (usually when infected eg by tubercular infection)
• Arthritis Inflammation of joints
• Arthritis gonorrhoeal Arthritis (inflammation of joints) associated with gonorrhoea, a venereal disease
• Arthritis rheumatoid Inflammation of joints
• Arthrodesis Surgical fusion of a joint to relieve pain
• Ascaris lumbracoides Worm infestation
• Ascites Swelling of abdomen caused by accumulation of fluid
• Asphyxia Unconsciousness or suffocation
• Asthenia Loss of strength, debility
• Asthma Difficulty in breathing with a sense of suffocation. Thought to be nervous in origin.
• Astigmatism Unequal refractive power of the eye
• Ataxy Impaired gait in walking
• Ataxy cerebellar Impaired gait in walking associated with disorder of the lower brain.
• Atelectasis Failure of lungs at birth
• Atheroma A soft pap-like tumour; also fatty degeneration of blood vessels
• Athetosis A continuous stream of slow, sinuous, writhing movements, typically of the hands and feet .
• Athrodesis Surgical fusion of a joint to relieve pain
• Atony Lack of muscle tone
• Atresia Constriction of tube or canal
• Atrophy Wasting
• Aural Of the ear
• Axilla The arm-pit

#### B

• Bacillaemia Bacteria in the blood
• Bacilluria Bacteria in the urine
• Balanitis Inflammation of the glans penis
• Bantis disease Enlarged spleen
• Bayles Disease Severe form of neurosyphilis
• Bells Palsy Paralysis of facial muscles resulting in distorted facial expression
• Bile ducts Carry bile from liver to intestine
• Bilious attack Digestive disturbance
• Birthmark Discolouration of the skin present at birth
• Blepharitis Inflammation of the eyelids
• Brights Disease Disease of the kidney, associated with dropsy and albuminuria
• Brittle bone disease Condition where bones are very fragile and break easily (also known as Osteogenesis imperfecta)
• Bronchial Relating to the tubes in the lungs
• Bronchiectasis Characterised by localised irreversible dilation of part of the lung, often referred to as obstructive lung disease
• Bronchiolitis Inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages in the lungs
• Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchial tubes.
• Bronchopneumonia Inflammation of the bronchi (the small tubes in the lungs) and the lungs
• Bulimia Excessive appetite
• Bursa A bursa is a sac containing fluid located within joints to facilitate movement.
• Bursitis A bursa is a sac containing fluid located within joints to facilitate movement. They can become inflamed (bursitis) rendering movement of the joint painful.

#### C

• Calculus Commonly referred to as ‘the stone’, most often found in the bladder (Calculus vesica)
• Calculus vesicae/vesical Commonly referred to as ‘the stone’, most often found in the bladder (Calculus vesica)
• Cancer A malignant growth
• Cancrum oris Ulceration of the mouth, associated with ill-fed children.
• Carcinoma Malignant tumour
• Carditis Inflammation of the heart
• Carditis rheumatic Inflammation of the heart associated with rheumatic fever.
• Caries Decay of bone
• Catalepsy A trance-like state, where limbs will remain in any position they are placed
• Cataract Opaqueness of the lens of the eye
• Cataract lamellar Opaqueness of the lens of the eye
• Catarrh Inflammation of mucous membranes accompanied by increased secretions – usually in the nose (as in the common cold) but can be applied to internal organs as well.
• Cellulitis Inflammation of the cellular tissue (the tissue located immediately beneath the skin)
• Cephalhaematoma Bloody tumour on the head of an infant Now known to be caused by haemorrhage
• Cerebellar/Cerebellum The lower part of the brain
• Cerebral/Cerebrum The largest part of brain
• Cerebrospinal Condition affecting brain and spinal cord
• Cervical Refers to the neck region
• Cervical adenitis Inflammation of lymph gland (node) in neck
• Cheiropomphylax Skin disease of hands and feet characterised by appearance of itchy blisters
• Chicken Pox & sequela Also known as Varicella. Infectious fever characterised by a rash on the chest which develops into very itchy pimples.
• Chilblains Small itchy red swollen areas of the skins, which arise after exposure to cold.
• Chloasma Discolouration of the skin
• Chlorosis Also known as green sickness, a ‘peculiar form of anaemia’ associated with females around puberty. Causes weakness, faintness, and rapid pulse on exertion .
• Cholaemia Presence of bile in the blood, often a sign of liver disease.
• Chondroma Benign tumour involving cartilage
• Chorea Also known as St Vitus Dance. Involuntary twitchings of the muscles, most common in children, who generally grow out of it.
• Choroiditis Inflammation of the choroid, one of the membranes which line the eyeball.
• Cicatrix Scar of a healed wound
• Circumcision Removal of part of the prepuce, the loose skin which covers the penis (the foreskin)
• Cirrhosis A granular state of an organ, most often the liver, when it is generally produced by consumption of alcohol
• Clavicle Collar bone
• Cleft jaw Extreme form of hare lip where the split in the lip extends through into the bone of the jaw.
• Cleft palate A congenital split in the roof of the mouth so that the nose and mouth form one cavity. An operation can be carried out to close the split. Often but not always accompanied by hare lip.
• Cleft palate hare lip A combination of congenital deformities of the mouth where the roof of the mouth does not close and there is a slit or cleft in the upper lip which can extend through the jaw bone. An operation or combination of operations can be performed to rectify the deformity, but it usually left a very visible scar.
• Clitoritis Small organ of erectile tissue found in females in the pubic region.
• Club foot Also known Talipes. A turning of the foot in the wrong direction. There are several different forms: the main ones being Talipes valgus: the foot turns outwards; varus, the foot turns inwards; equinus, the heel is lifted from the ground. The condition can exist at birth or be acquired during life.
• Coccyx Last bone in the spine
• Coeliac Relates to the cavity in which the intestines sit In modern times this term refers to a specific autoimmune disease of the small intestines.
• Colic Pain in the abdomen
• Colic renal Pain in the kidneys
• Colitis Inflammation of the colon
• Coliuria Presence of E. coli bacteria in the urine
• Collapse pulmonary Deflation of a lung
• Colon Part of the large intestine
• Colotomy An incision made in the colon (the large intestine) in cases of obstruction, fistula, cancer or ulceration of the rectum.
• Congenital Disease or deformity present at birth
• Congested brain Used in connection with brain fever or any form of delirium
• Congested liver A torpid stagnation of the blood in the liver
• Congested lung A torpid stagnation of the blood in the lungs, can be used to refer to bronchopneumonia
• Conjuctiva Membrane which covers the eye lid and cornea
• Conjunctivitis Inflammation and irritation of the eye
• Conjunctivitis phlyctenular Inflammation and irritation of the eye accompanied by phlyctaena, small fluid filled blisters
• Consolidated lung Condition in which the tissue of the lungs becomes solid and firm rather than elastic and air-filled
• Constipation Indolent state of the bowels , or infrequent bowel movements
• Contraction of pylorus congenital Born with the exit of the stomach into the intestines constricted
• Convulsion intestine Violent spasm of the intestines
• Convulsions Violent spasm of alternate muscular contraction and relaxation
• Cornea The transparent covering of the front of the eye
• Corneal opacity Cloudiness of the cornea: the usually transparent covering of the front of the eye
• Corneitis Inflammation of the cornea: the transparent covering of the front of the eye
• Coryza Cold in the head
• Cranial Relating to the skull
• Craniectomy Removal of part of skull to create room for a swelling brain
• Cretinism/Cretin Imperfect mental faculties and small stature often accompanied by swelling in the throat region (goitre)
• Croaking Problems speaking
• Croup & sequela Acute inflammation of the larynx (or voice box)
• Cryptorchidism Absence of one or both testes from the scrotal sac, usually the result of undescended testes
• Cyanosis Blue colour to the skin, resulting from congestion in the venous circulation of the blood
• Cynanche Sore throat or inflammation of the tonsils
• Cyst A membranous sac-like structure containing fluid
• Cyst dermoid An encapsulated tumour which has developed structures such has hair and teeth within it.
• Cystitis Inflammation of the bladder.

#### D

• Dacrocystitis Inflammation of the duct which drains tears out of the eye
• Dactylitis A syphilitic swelling of the fingers and toes, syphilitic – a symptom of syphilis. Modern definitions associate dactylitis with several different conditions including tuberculosis.
• Debility Weakness or loss of muscular power.
• Debility nervous Weakness or loss of muscular power, related to a nervous disorder
• Defective development Slow physical development
• Deficiency cerebral Mental impairment
• Delirium Extravagant talking, raving generally due to high fever.
• Dementia Feebleness of mental faculties, the last stage of insanity.
• Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin
• Dermatomyositis Inflammation of the skin and muscles
• Dermoid An encapsulated tumour which has developed structures such has hair and teeth within it.
• Desquamation Peeling off of the skin. Desquamation occurs after scarlet fever and is when the patient is most infectious
• Diabetes A disease marked by an excessive flow of saccharine urine.
• Diaphragm The muscle which separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity
• Diaphysitis Inflammation of the shaft of a long bone
• Dilated ureter Ureter: the canal which carried urine from the kidney to the bladder.
• Dilated Ureter Ureter: the canal which carried urine from the kidney to the bladder.
• Diphtheria & sequela Infectious inflammation of the throat, with the formation of a false membrane which tends to close the throat and cause suffocation . A common disease of childhood in 19th century but rarely seen in modern times in Western medicine .
• Diphtheria & Sequela Infectious inflammation of the throat, with the formation of a false membrane which tends to close the throat and cause suffocation . A common disease of childhood in 19th century but rarely seen in modern times in Western medicine .
• Diphtheritic paralysis Paralysis of various types occurring after diphtheria infection.
• Diphtheritic Paralysis Paralysis of various types occurring after diphtheria infection.
• Diplegia A form of paralysis which primarily affects the legs
• Disseminated sclerosis Now better known as multiple sclerosis, a condition affecting nerves in the spinal cord and brain
• Diuresis Increased flow of urine
• Diverticulitis A disease of the large intestine
• Dorsal Relates to the back
• Dropsy Accumulation of fluid in the cavities of the body, often seen towards the end of cases of cancer, heart disease etc. Now more commonly referred to as oedema
• Duchennes Paralysis Progressive locomotor ataxy, or impaired gait in walking
• Dysentery Inflammation of the large intestine accompanied by bloody evacuations.
• Dyspepsia Indigestion
• Dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing
• Dyspnoea Difficult breathing
• Dystrophy muscular Now known to be a hereditary condition in which the muscles of the body grow progressively weaker
• Dysuria Difficulty in discharging urine.

#### E

• Ecchymosis Bruising caused by leakage of blood from blood vessels into surrounding tissues
• Eclampsia Convulsions in infants often ending in epilepsy also known as Salaam convulsions  Probably refers to condition now referred to as West Syndrome
• Ecthyma A pustular disease of the skin, not contagious
• Ectopia cordis Condition in which the heart is displaced, usually through the wall of chest cavity, resent at birth.
• Ectopia vesicae Condition in which development of the bladder is incomplete at birth
• Ectropion Turning out of the eyelid
• Eczema Non-contagious, but often unpleasant, eruption on the skin which causes great irritation.
• Eczema capitis Skin eruption of the scalp
• Effusion Accumulation of fluid in body cavities, often relates to fluid in the spaces between the membranes lining the lungs (pleura)
• Elephantiasis A skin disease causing terrible enlargement of affected limbs. The skin resembles an elephant’s hide. Caused by a parasite.
• Embolism Coagulation of the blood into a clot.
• Emesis Vomiting
• Emphysema Swelling produced by air, a dropsy is caused by fluid. A long term progressive disease of the lungs caused by collapse of lung structures which make exhaling difficult.
• Empyema A collection of pus in one or both cavities of the pleura (membranes lining the lungs). – Not to be confused with emphysema.
• Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
• Encephalocele Protrusion of the brain through the skull
• Endocarditis Inflammation of the membrane lining the inside of the heart
• Endopericarditis Inflammation of both the interior lining of the heart and the membranous sac in which the heart is enclosed.
• Enteric Relating to the intestines
• Enterica Typhoid Fever (possibly?)
• Enteritis Inflammation of the small intestines, usually accompanied by diarrhoea
• Enterocolitis Inflammation of the small intestines and the colon, the main part of the large intestines
• Entropion Condition in which the eyelid turns inwards
• Enuresis Involuntary discharge of urine
• Epididymitis Inflammation of the small oblong body above the testes (male sex organs) The tube which conveys sperm from the testes to the vas deferens and penis.
• Epilepsy A disease of the brain marked by convulsive fits.
• Epiphysitis Inflammation of the end of a bone (epiphysis, its growth point)
• Epispadias Malformation of the penis
• Epistaxis Nose bleed
• Erbs myopathy A juvenile form of muscular dystrophy, now known to be an hereditary condition in which the muscles of the body grow progressively weaker
• Erbs palsy Paralysis of the arms and shoulders caused by damage to nerves during birth
• Erysipelas & sequela Contagious inflammation of the skin , often associated with surgery.
• Erythema nodosum Non-contagious, inflammation of the skin
• Exophthalmus Protruding eyeball
• Exostosis Bony tumour growing from the bone
• Extroversion viscera A deformity of the intestines.

#### F

• Favus Contagious disease of the scalp
• Femur Large bone in upper leg; thigh bone
• Fibroadenoma A benign mobile tumour often found in the breast
• Fibroid A tumour composed of fibrous material
• Fibula One of two small bones in lower leg
• Fissure anus Tear in the skin of the anal canal
• Fistula An unnatural passage by which an internal organs communicates with another, or with the body’s exterior
• Follicle Part of the skin which contains the root of a hair.
• Foreign body Ingestion of a foreign body, often a penny or a needle
• Friedreichs ataxy Hereditary paralysis
• Friedreichs cataract Congenital cataract of the eye
• Functional ataxy Impaired gait in walking.

#### G

• Gall bladder Membraneous sac which contains the bile
• Ganglion An enlargement of a nerve, or a swelling in the sheath of a tendon
• Gangrene Death of a part of the body, begins with discolouration, usually of the toes.
• Gastric Relating to the stomach
• Gastritis Inflammation of the stomach
• Gastroenteritis Inflammation of the stomach and intestines
• Gastrointestinal Realting to the stomach and intestines
• Genitourinary organs The combined organs of the urinary system and the sex organs
• Genu valgum Another term for knock-knee
• Genu varum Another term for bow legs
• Gigantism Condition characterised by excessive growth and height significantly above average. Now known to be caused by excess production of growth hormone
• Gingivitis Inflammation of the gums
• Gland Small bodies found in different parts of the body often used to refer to lymph nodes, which are part of the body’s immune system.
• Glands axilla Lymph gland (nodes) found in arm-pit
• Glands cervical Lymph gland (nodes) found in neck region
• Glands groin Lymph glands (nodes) found in the junction of the thighs and the trunk
• Glands perineum Lymph glands (nodes) located in the space between the anus and the genital organs .
• Glaucoma Inflammation of the eye, with hardening of the globe Disease of the eye characterised by increased pressure within the eyeball which can lead to deterioration in sight.
• Glioma A tumour arising from nerve cells
• Glioma psoas A tumour arising from nerve cells in the lower back
• Glossitis Inflammation of the tongue
• Gluteal Refers to the buttocks
• Glycosuria Glucose in the urine
• Goitre Enlargement of the thyroid gland of the throat
• Gonorrhoea Inflammation of the genitals, accompanies by flow of pus. Very contagious
• Granuloma A mass of granular tissue usually associated with infection
• Graves disease Enlargement of the thyroid gland of the throat with protrusion of the eyeballs
• Groin The junction of the thighs and the trunk

H

• Haemarthrosis Bleeding into a joint
• Haematemesis Vomiting blood
• Haematocele A tumour containing blood
• Haematoma Blood clot outside the blood vessel, usually the result of haemorrhage
• Haematuria Blood in the urine
• Haemoglobinuria Haemoglobin in the urine
• haemophilia A congenital tendency to haemorrrhage
• Haemophilia A congenital tendency to haemorrrhage
• Haemoptysis Coughing up blood from the lungs
• Haemorrhage Bleeding
• Haemorrhoids Piles
• Hallucination Imaginary appearances, symptomatic of disease of the brain
• Hammer toe Deformity of the toe, causing it t be permanently bent
• Hare lip A congenital deformity of the mouth where there is a slit or cleft in the upper lip which can extend through the jaw bone. An operation can be performed to rectify the deformity, but it usually left a very visible scar.
• Hemikinesis Spasms or twitching on one side of the body (BMJ 10 July 1875 p43)
• Hemiparesis weakness on one side of the body
• Hemiplegia Paralysis of one side of the body
• Henochs purpura A serious skin disease marked by purple patches, caused by escape of blood into the skin.
• Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver
• Hermaphrodite A condition in which the genital organs are neither wholly male or female
• Hermaphroditism A condition in which the genital organs are neither wholly male or female
• Hernia Commonly called a rupture. The protrusion of any internal organ through the surrounding tissues, most commonly the bowels protruding through the abdominal wall.
• Herpes zoster Acute inflammation of the skin usually called shingles Now known to be caused by the virus Varicella zoster
• High arch Abnormally high instep
• Hip Disease Inflammation of the hip joint, most common in children and extremely painful, often accompanied by abscesses. Although not specifically mentioned at time of recording, it is thought that many cases of hip disease were tubercular in origin.
• Hirschsprungs disease Congenital malformation of the bowel
• Hirsutism Condition in which body is abnormally hairy
• Hodgkins disease General enlargement of the glands of the lymphatic system
• Hospitalism Condition associated with prolonged stay and exposure to unwholesome state of the atmosphere in an ill-ventilated ort ill-kept institution’.
• Humerus Bone of the upper arm
• Huntingdons chorea A progressive neurodegenerative genetic disorder, which affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and dementia
• Hydatid Watery tumour developed in any cavity of the body by the presence of a species of parasite. Most common in liver or lung.
• Hydrocele Watery tumour usually found in the scrotum
• hydrocephalus Water on the brain, causing the head to swell to enormous size.
• Hydromyelia An accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid which can put abnormal pressure on the spinal cord causing pain and damage to nerves
• Hydronephrosis Accumulation of fluid in the kidney
• Hygroma Watery tumour
• Hyperaesthesia Excess of feeling (sensation)
• Hypermetropia Long sightedness
• Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis Excessive growth of the lower part of the stomach where it opens into the intestine, causing a narrowing of the outlet
• Hypertrophy Excessive growth of a body part
• Hypertrophy pylorus Excessive growth of the lower part of the stomach where it opens into the intestine
• Hypochondria Slight melancholia, mental distress about health
• Hypopituitarism Inability of the pituitary gland (situated at the base of the brain) to secrete sufficient levels of hormones.
• Hypopyon Pus in the eye
• Hypospadias Malformation of the lower wall of the urethra (the tube through urine is excreted from the body) in male children, present at birth
• Hypothyroidism Insufficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland (located in the neck and produces hormones which influence metabolism among other activities) Can result in cretinism – a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth
• Hysteria A nervous disease sometimes marked by convulsive seizures and very often by dislike to food, painful impressions and untruthfulness

I

• Ichthyma A skin disease
• Ichthyosis Fish skin disease, so called because it resembles the hard scaliness of a fish
• Idiocy Mental weakness which dates from birth, feeble-mindedness
• Ileum Part of the large intestine
• Ilium Hip bone
• Imbecility Refers to a degree of mental retardation, worse than moron but above idiot. Lacking in the capacity to develop beyond the mental age of a normal five to seven-year-old child (Modern for Obsolete term)
• Imperforate anus Absence of anal opening
• Imperforate hymen Condition in which hymen completely closes the entrance to the vagina
• Imperforate oesophagus Condition in which the oesophagus (the food tube) ends in closed pouch and is not connected to the stomach
• Imperforate rectum Absence of anal opening
• Imperforate urethra Absence of urethral opening (tube which normally carries urine outside the body)
• Imperforate vagina Absence of vaginal opening
• Impetigo A skin rash of an acute kind normally seen in weakly women and children Now known to be caused by highly contagious staphylococcal bacteria
• Incontinence Inability to control evacuation of the bladder
• Indigestion Failure of the digestive powers Also known as dyspepsia
• Induration femur Hardening of the upper leg bone
• Infantile scurvy Disease marked by dejection, anemia and haemorrhage, caused by want of fresh meat and vegetables
• Infantilism An obsolete term for various, often unrelated, disorders which consist of retention of the physical and/or psychological characteristics of infancy or childhood
• Infarct cerebral Tissue death due to lack of oxygen in the front brain
• Inguinal Refers to lowest part of abdomen on either side of the pubic bone
• Insanity Madness, disease of the brain causing loss of reason
• Intertrigo Inflammation of the skin around the anus, axilla (arm pits) or groin
• Intussusception A condition of the intestines in which one part slips inside another and causes obstruction of the bowel.
• Inverted bladder A condition in which the bladder is turned inside out
• Iridemia Haemorrhage in the iris
• Iris The coloured circle surrounding the dark pupil of the eye
• Iritis Inflammation of the iris
• Ischiorectal Refers to region in lower rear abdominal cavity

J

• Jaundice Disease of the liver causing yellowness of the skin

K

• Kaposis disease Extreme formation of freckles with tendency to ulcerate The term now covers several conditions, including Kaposi’s Sarcoma (caused by a virus) and linked to HIV infection, and a rare skin condition.
• Keloid A growth of the skin intermediate in character between a scar and a tumour.
• Keratitis Inflammation of the cornea (the clear covering of the eye)
• Keratitis phlyctenular Discrete nodular areas of inflammation of the cornea
• Kyphosis Hump back, deformity of spine

L

• Labioglossal pouch Condition involving the lips and tongue
• Labium/labia Female genital organs
• Lachrymal Referring to the tear ducts and the glands which secrete them
• Laminectomy Operation involving the removal of part of a vertebral bone
• Languor Lack of vigour or vitality
• Laparotomy Operation to open the abdominal cavity, a serious operation
• Lardaceous disease Degeneration of tissues until they resemble wax (usually the liver or kidneys)
• Laryngismus Spasmodic or false croup (inflammation of the larynx and trachea) accompanied by a crowing noise.
• Leontiasis Leprosy of the face
• Leprosy A constitutional malignant disease, cutaneous in initial phase but later involving both tissue and bone. Now known to be caused by a bacterium
• Leucocythaemia Morbid increase in white blood cells, sometimes accompanied by haemorrhage, enlarged spleen and vomiting.
• Leucoderma Skin condition in which white spots or patches appears (also known as vitiligo)
• Leucoma A milky opacity of the cornea of the eye
• Leucorrhoea A whitish discharge from the vagina, a sign of weakness. Now known to have many causes, including oestrogen imbalance and infections. ,
• Leukaemia Increase in white blood cells A cancer of the blood of blood marrow in which white blood cell counts are abnormally high.
• Lice Infestation by biting insects
• Lichen A skin disease in which striking feature is inflamed pimples
• Lipoma A fatty tumour
• Lithaemia Excess lithic (uric) acid in the blood producing gouty dyspepsia.
• Lithotomy Operation for cutting into bladder to remove stone
• Lithuria Passing gravel (small stones) in the urine
• Llarynx Voice organ voice box
• Lumbago A rheumatic condition of the loins (the sides of the body and back below the ribs and above the pelvis)
• Lumbar Lower back
• Lupus A tuberculous disease of the skin, most common in children of consumptive or scrofulous tendency . Now known not to be a tubercular condition, but to be a form of auto-immune disease.
• Lymph A colourless alkaline fluid found in the lymphatic vessels – the small vessels which pervade the body .
• Lymphadenitis Inflammation of the lymphatic glands.
• Lymphadenoma Enlarged lymph glands
• Lymphadentitis Inflammation of the lymphatic glands.
• Lymphangiectasis Dilation of the lymph vessels often accompanied by diarrhoea, ascites and oedema
• Lymphangioma Malformation of the lymphatic system
• Lymphangitis Inflammation of the lymphatic channels abused by infection and sometimes called blood poisoning’
• Lymphasarcoma A malignant cancer involving the lymph system
• Lymphatic Referring to the system of small vessels pervading the body and carrying lymph.
• Lymphocythaemia An excess of normal lymphocytes (white blood cells)
• Lymphoedema Localised fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by dysfunctional lymphatic system
• Lymphoma A solid tumor of lymphoid cells arising from the lymph system .
• Lymphosarcoma A malignant tumour of lymphoid cells

M

• Macrocephaly Very large headed
• Malaise General feeling of discomfort
• Mania Insanity, madness
• Marasmus A wasting of the flesh, accompanied by loss of power, generally due to tubercular disease of the mesenteric gland (glands associated with membranes in the abdomen) . Associated most often these days with severe protein malnutrition.
• Mastitis Inflammation of the breast
• Mastodynia Pain in the breasts
• Mastoid Mastoid (process): Bone at base of skull very closely connected to the ear
• Mastoiditis Inflammation of the mastoid (process): Bone at base of skull very closely connected to the ear
• Mastoid (process) Bone at base of skull very closely connected to the ear
• Masturbation Manual production of vicious excitement
• Measles & sequela A common infectious disease of childhood still encountered today.
• Mediastinal/mediastinum The space in the chest between the sacs which surround each lung .
• Mediastinitis Inflammation of the tissues in the chest cavity known as the mediastinum
• Mediastinum The space in the chest between the sacs which surround each lung .
• Melaena Discharge of black blood from bowels
• Melancholia Morbid depression, a form of insanity
• Meningismus A group of symptoms similar to meningitis (stiff neck, reaction to light and headache) without inflammation of the membranes lining the brain
• Meningitis Inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord, a serious disease which is often fatal.
• Meningocele Protrusion of brain matter through the skull
• Mesenteric/mesentery Membranes in the abdominal cavity
• Microcephalus Abnormally small head
• Microphthalmus Abnormally small eyes
• Micturition Act of passing urine
• Migraine Headache, usually known as sick headache, coming on periodically
• Mitral Refers to one of the valves in the heart which separates the upper and lower left chambers
• Molluscum Disease of the skin
• Mongolism Congenital disorder, know known as Down’s Syndrome, named after John Langdon Down who first described its symptoms in 1866
• Monoplegia Paralysis of one limb
• Morbus cordis Unspecified heart disease
• Morbus coxae Unspecified disease of the hip.
• Mucocele Sac like swelling filled with mucus
• Mucous membranes Membranes which line body passages and cavities which are exposed to external environment, such as the mouth, eyes, nose. Some, like the nose, secrete mucus, a thick sticky fluid.
• Multiple sclerosis A degenerative disease in which the linings of nerves in the brain and spinal cord deteriorate resulting a wide spectrum of symptoms
• Muscular atrophy Wasting of muscles
• Muscular dystrophy Inherited progressive weakness of muscles
• Myelitis Inflammation of the spinal cord
• Myocarditis Inflammation of the heart muscle, often following acute rheumatism
• Myoclonus Brief involuntary twitching of muscles
• Myopathy Muscular condition resulting in weakness
• Myopia Short sightedness
• Myositis Inflammation of skeletal muscles
• Myotonia Condition in which muscles relax only slowly after contraction.
• Myotonia congenital Condition in which muscles relax only slowly after contraction.
• Myxoedema A jelly-like form of dropsy, with dry skin, lethargy and extreme susceptibility to cold

N

• Naevolipoma Benign tumour of fatty tissue
• Naevus Birth mark
• Nasal septum The cartilage which separates the two nostrils of the nose
• Necrosis Death of a part of the body, most often applied to bone.
• Nephritis Inflammation of the kidney
• Nephrosis Non-inflammatory disease of kidneys
• Neuralgia Pain of a nerve
• Neurasthenia Nervous exhaustion
• Neuritis Inflammation of nerves
• Neurofibroma Tumour of peripheral nervous system
• Neuroma Tumour of peripheral nervous system
• Neuromimesis Neurotic simulation of organic disease
• Neuropathy Damage to the nervous system
• Neurosis Disease of nervous system but with no obvious structural cause
• Noma Ulceration of mouth or labia
• Nystagmus Involuntary movement of the eyeball

O

• Observation In hospital to be observed
• Occiput Occiput: back of the skull
• Oedema Swelling of a body tissues, caused by accumulation of fluid
• Oedema neonatorum Swelling of a body tissues in the new born
• Oesophagismus Condition affecting the tube which connects the stomach to the mouth
• Oesophagus The canal which runs from the throat to the stomach
• Oesophagus congenital Tube which carries food from mouth to stomach.
• Ophthalmia Inflammation of the eye
• Ophthalmia neonatorum Inflammation of the eye in the newborn
• Ophthalmitis Inflammation of the eye
• Orbit Cavity which holds the eye
• Orchitis Inflammation of the testes (male organs of generation)
• Os calcis Heel bone
• Osteitis Inflammation of the bone
• Osteoarthritis Inflammation of the bones and joints
• Osteomalacia Softening of the bones
• Osteomyelitis Inflammation of the soft tissue of the bone
• Osteotomy Operation on a bone, generally breaking and resetting as in bow legs.
• Otitis Inflammation of the inner ear
• Otitis interna Inflammation of the internal ear
• Otitis media Inflammation of the middle ear
• Otitis media suppurating Inflammation of the middle ear , with production of pus
• Otorrhoea A purulent discharge from the ear.

P

• Pachymeningitis A form of meningitis
• Palate Roof of mouth
• Palsy Popular name for paralysis
• Panophthalmitis Inflammation of all tissues of the eyeball
• Panophthlamia Inflammation of all tissues of the eyeball
• Papilloma Small surface tumours
• Paracentesis Operation performed on chest or abdomen to discharge fluid accumulated in dropsy patients
• Paralysis A total or partial loss of sensation and power of movement., often only affecting a specific part of the body.
• Paralysis infantile Occurs in weakly children under 4 years; legs being usually affected. A probable synonym for poliomyelitis.
• Paralysis Infantile Occurs in weakly children under 4 years; legs being usually affected. A probable synonym for poliomyelitis.
• Paralysis pseudohypertrophic A form of neuromuscular paralysis, predisposition to which appears to be inherited The diagnosis seems to have passed out of modern use.
• Paraplegia Paralysis of the lower half of the body
• Parasitic foetus Result of incomplete separation of twin embryos in the uterus. One embryo develops at the expense of the other, which ceases to grow and is vestigial to a mostly fully-formed, otherwise healthy individual twin at birth.
• Paresis A slight form of paralysis
• Parietal bone One of the bones of the skull
• Parotid Salivary gland situated near the ear and implicated in mumps
• Parotitis Mumps
• Patellar Knee cap
• Pemphigus Skin disease marked by eruptions of large blisters
• Pericarditis Inflammation of the out6er coat of the heart
• Pericardium Membrane surrounding heart
• Perineal/perineum The space between the anus and the genital organs
• Periosteal/Periosteum Membrane which covers bone
• Periosteitis Inflammation of the membrane covering a bone
• Peritoneal/Peritoneum Membrane which encloses intestines
• Peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane which holds the intestines in the abdomen.
• Perityphlitis Inflammation of the membrane around the caecum (part of the intestines)
• Phagadaena Ulcers or wounds which spread rapidly.
• Pharyngismus Spasm of muscles in the pharynx (connects the mouth to the oesophagus )
• Pharyngitis Inflammation of the pharynx (connects the mouth to the oesophagus)
• Pharynx Connects the mouth to the oesophagus
• Phimosis Contraction of the orifice of the prepuce (foreskin of penis), usually treated by circumcision
• Phlebitis Inflammation of the veins caused by coagulation of the blood
• Phlegmon Rapid suppurating inflammation with formation of a hard mass, heating and pain
• Phlyctenular Small vesicles containing clear fluid, often associated with the eye
• Photophobia Dread of light
• Phthisis Specific name given to tubercular disease of the lungs.
• Phthisis in bulbi Shrunken non-functional eye resulting from disease or injury.
• Pityriasis A scaly skin disease
• Pleura Membranes lining chest cavity and the lungs
• Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura – the membranes which surround the lungs and line the cavity of the chest.
• Pleuritis An alternative name for pleurisy: inflammation of the pleura – the membranes which surround the lungs and line the cavity of the chest.
• Pleurodynia Pain in the side
• Pleuropneumonia Pleurisy (inflammation of the membranes lining the lung) combined with pneumonia
• Pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs
• Pneumothorax Air in the pleural cavity
• Polioencephalitis & sequela Inflammation of the grey matter of the brain
• Poliomyelitis & sequela Inflammation of the grey matter of the spinal cord , leading to paralysis.
• Polycythaemia An excess of red blood cells
• Polydipsia Excessive thirst
• Polyp/Polypus A small simple tumour
• Polyuria Excessive flow of urine
• Pompholyx Type of eczema of hands and feet characterised by appearance of tiny blisters
• Porrigo capitus Skin condition of scalp marked by eruption of pustules.
• Postpharyngeal/Retrophayngeal Lower throat
• Potts disease Spinal curvature
• Prematurity Born before full term (but after 7 months)
• Prepuce Foreskin of penis
• Prolapse Condition in which internal organs fall out of place
• Proptosis Protrusion of the eyeball
• Prurigo Skin disease marked by very irritable and lasting eruptions.
• Pruritis Local skin irritation, generally
• Pseudoarthrosis Inadequate healing of fracture, such that the bone moves inappropriately
• Psoas A muscle of the side of the abdomen
• Psoriasis A scaly skin disease of chronic character
• Ptosis Drooping of upper eyelid
• Pubis Pubic bone
• Pulmonary Referring to the lungs
• Purpura A serious skin disease marked by purple patches, caused by escape of blood into the skin.
• Pyaemia Blood poisoning caused by absorption of pus and marked by presence of abscesses.
• Pyelitis Inflammation of the kidney
• Pyelonephritis Inflammation of the kidney
• Pyloric stenosis Constriction of the lower opening of the stomach into the intestines
• Pylorus The lower opening of the stomach into the duodenum (small intestine)
• Pyonephrosis Kidney infection causing pus in the urine
• Pyopneumothorax Presence of gas and pus in the cavity between the pleura (the membranes lining the lungs)
• Pyosalpinx Collection of pus in a fallopian tube (the tube the egg passes through from ovary to uterus)
• Pyrexia Fever, ill-defined
• Pyuria Pus in the urine

Q

• Quinsy Acute inflammation and enlargement of the tonsils

R

• Radius One of two bones in lower arm
• Ranula Cystic tumour under tongue
• Raynauds disease Gangrene of finger and toe. A neurosis Vasospasm of arteries which reduces blood flow to fingers and toes. Cause unknown.
• Rectum Last portion of the large intestine
• Regurgitation Backward flow of fluid eg of blood through a defective valve or of the stomach contents eg vomiting
• Renal Relating to the kidney
• Respiration The act of breathing
• Retained testes Failure of testes to descend into scrotal sac (Male organs of generation)
• Retinitis Inflammation of the retina
• Retroperitoneal Space within the abdominal cavity
• Rheumatic disease Acute form of rheumatism An inflammatory disease following a Group A streptococcal infection that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain
• Rheumatic fever Acute form of rheumatism An inflammatory disease following a Group A streptococcal infection that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain
• Rheumatism A diseased condition of the blood; if acute it is commonly called rheumatic fever, but it may be chronic or muscular. Always accompanied by great pain. In modern times the term has vague meaning, in common usage referring to inflamed joints or joint pain.
• Rheumatoid arthritis A chronic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks joints .
• Rhinitis Inflammation of the nose Inflammation of the membranes of the inner nose
• Rhinorrhoea Runny nose
• Rickets Also known as rachitis. A constitutional disease of childhood marked by curving of the spine or long bones and enlargement of the joints. It is now known that rickets is most commonly associated with vitamin D or calcium deficiency.
• Ringworm Circular skin eruption, contagious, often of the scalp, also called Tinea Fungal skin infection
• Rupture Hernia

S

• Sacral meningocele Protrusion of membranes lining the spine through a defect in lower vertebrae
• Sacroiliac Refers to a joint within the hip structure
• Sacrum Lowest division of the spine forming part of the pelvis
• Salpingitis Inflammation of the fallopian tube (the tube which carries the egg from the ovary to the womb)
• Sarcoma Fleshy tumour often malignant
• Scabies The itch, a contagious skin disease due to a parasitic insect
• Scarlet fever & sequela Also known as scarletina. An infectious fever accompanied by redness of the skin, most common in children, accompanied by desquamation (or peeling) of the skin.
• Schlatters disease Knee pain associated with rapid growth during adolescence, when damage occurs to the growth plate in the knee-end of the tibia (lower leg bone)
• Sciatic nerve The large nerve which arises in the lower back, passes through the hip and buttocks to the lower leg.
• Scleritis Inflammatory disease of the eye ball
• Scleroderma Chronic disease of the skin causing hardness
• Scleroma Hardening of the tissues generally, in infants rare but fatal
• Sclerosis Hardening of the tissues generally, in infants rare but fatal
• Scoliosis Curving of the spine
• Scrofula Constitutional debility with tendency to tuberculosis
• Scrotum Sac which holds testicles
• Scurvy Also known as scorbutus, a disease marked by dejection, anaemia and haemorrhage and caused by want of fresh meat and vegetables
• Scurvy rickets Combination of scurvy, condition associated with want of fresh meat and vegetables, and rickets, marked by curving of spine and long bones and painful joints.
• Sebaceous Realting to glands in the skin
• Seborrhoea Excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands, located in the skin.
• Sepsis Putrefaction
• Septic Which causes putrefaction or the rotting away of living matter.
• Septicaemia Blood poisoning caused by micro-organisms in the blood, which increase rapidly causing high fever.
• Sequela Other conditions arising as a result of the original infection
• Shingles Also called herpes. Acute inflammation of the skin now known to be caused by the virus Varicella zoster
• Shock Sudden prostration due to painful impression.
• Sinus Passage leading from an abscess, or some inner part, to an external opening.
• Sloughing Throwing off of dead matter, such as skin, eg by ulcers
• Smallpox & sequela Also known as Variola, infectious fever marked by an eruption of red pimples.
• Soft palate The soft part of the roof of the mouth
• Somnambulism Walking in the sleep
• Spengels shoulder Deformity of the shoulder blade
• Spermatocele Cyst of testes which contains spermatozoa
• Spina bifida A congenital malformation of the spine
• Spinal cord The marrow of the spine The bundle of nerves which lead from the brain into the rest of the body, and are enclosed within the spinal column
• Spleen An oval body to left of stomach, which forms and purifies the blood
• Splenomegaly Enlarged spleen, an oval body to left of stomach, which forms and purifies the blood
• Spondylitis Inflammation of the spine
• Sporotrichosis Fungal infection of the skin, which can also affect the lungs, joints and brain
• Sprengels deformity Deformity of the shoulder blade
• Staphyloma A protrusion on the back surface of the eye
• Stasis intestine Decrease o absence of normal muscular contractions of the intestine
• Status lymphaticus Hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue thought to be responsible for sudden infant death. The disease is no longer recognised as a discrete entity and the term has passed out of use
• Steatorrhoea Presence of excess fat in the stools
• Stenosis Contraction or constriction
• Sternum The breast bone
• Stills disease Form of arthritis marked by high fever and rash
• Stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth often with ulceration
• Stone Also known as calculus. Most often found in the bladder (Calculus vesica)
• Strabismus Squint
• Strangulated intestines A complication of hernia, where the blood supply to the intestines has been compromised
• Strangulated testes A complication of hernia, where the blood supply to the testes has been compromised
• Strepococcal Bacterial infection (a ‘chain-form’ of bacteria)
• Stricture Contraction
• Stridor Harsh, crackling sounds in breathing
• Struma/strumous A swelling associated with scrofula, a constitutional debility with a tendency to tuberculosis
• Strumous dactylitis Swollen digits (of hands or feet) associated with scrofula, a constitutional debility with a tendency to tuberculosis
• Strumous keratitis Inflammation of the cornea of the eye, associated with scrofula, a constitutional debility with a tendency to tuberculosis
• Strumous ophthalmia Swollen eye, associated with scrofula, a constitutional debility with a tendency to tuberculosis
• Strumpells paralysis A form of paralysis, similar to poliomyelitis
• Subdural Refers to one of the membranes surrounding the spinal cord
• Supernumerary auricle Condition in which an additional outer ear appears to be present, either complete or in vestigial form, present at birth
• Supernumerary digits Presence of more than the normal number of fingers of toes
• Suppression urine Decreased flow of urine
• Suppurating Inflammation with production of pus
• Symes amputation Amputation at the ankle joint
• Syndactyly Condition in which two or more digits are fused together, present at birth
• Synovitis Inflammation of one of the membranes lining a joint
• Syphilis & sequela Venereal disease, specific and contagious, in some cases can be transferred from mother to child during pregnancy.
• Syphilis & sequela congenital Venereal disease, specific and contagious, in some cases can be transferred from mother to child during pregnancy.

T

• Tabes Wasting disease, with several causes including tuberculosis
• Tabes mesenterica Tubercular disease of the intestines
• Tachycardia Rapid heart rate
• Taenia Tapeworm
• Talangiectasis congenital Small dilated blood vessels near surface of skin, most common on face
• Talipes Also known as club foot. A turning of the foot in the wrong direction. There are several different forms: the main ones being Talipes valgus: the foot turns outwards; varus, the foot turns inwards; equinus, the heel is lifted from the ground. The condition can exist at birth or be acquired during life.
• Tenosynovitis Inflammation of the sheath which surrounds a tendon (the tissue which connects muscle to bone)
• Testes/Testicles Male sex organs, also referred to as testicles
• Tetanus & sequela Lock-jaw Now known to be bacterial in original (Clostridium tetani).
• Tetany Involuntary contraction of muscles – it is not clear if the Victorian doctors differentiated between tetanus and tetany
• Thorax The chest cavity holding the lungs and heart
• Thrombosis Coagulation of the blood to form a clot in a blood vessel which blocks it.
• Thrush Also known as aphthae. Small white ulcers in the mouth , now known to be caused by a yeast infection.
• Thymus A gland at the front of the neck Specialised organ of the immune system which produces immune cells, t-lymphocytes
• Thyroglossal duct Part of the embryonic thyroid gland which usually closes after birth, but when it does not it can lead to problems.
• Thyroid Gland in neck producing hormones which influence metabolism among other activities
• Tibia One of two small bones in lower leg
• Tic Sudden repetitive involuntary motor movement or vocalisation
• Tinea Disease of skin due to vegetable parasite also called ringworm Fungal skin infection
• Tonsillitis Inflammation of the tonsils, also known as quinsy.
• Torticollis Wry-neck , condition in which head is tilted to one side and the chin raised and pointed towards the opposite side
• Toxaemia A poisoned state of the blood
• Trachea Windpipe
• Tracheitis Inflammation of the windpipe
• Tracheotomy The operation to make an opening into the windpipe and insertion of a tube so the patient can breathe through the tube instead of the mouth
• Trachoma Infectious eye disease
• Trichinosis Disease caused by a spiral worm found in swine
• Tubercle/Tubercular Relating to a form of tuberculosis
• Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is caused by a bacillus, to which there is an inherited tendency and can affect single or multiple sites in the body. The inherited nature of the disease has been disproved. Tubercular infection was a great scourge of 19th century poor children.
• Tumour Enlargement due to a permanent growth
• Turbinals Nasal bones
• Tympanites Wind-dropsy, a distended abdomen caused by gas in the intestines
• Typhlitis Inflammation of the lining of part of the intestines (caecum)
• Typhoid fever & sequela A continued fever usually accompanied by intestinal disturbance and a rose-coloured eruption on the 7th day. Not to be confused with Typhus Fever Now known to be caused by ingesting water or food carrying the bacteria Salmonella typhii.
• Typhus fever & sequela Highly infectious fever peculiar to dense , ill-ventilated habitations associated with poverty and bad-air. Now known to be caused by infestation by Rickettsia parasite, spread by mites or fleas. Modern)

U

• Ulcerative colitis Inflammation and ulcers of the intestine
• Ulna One of two small bones in lower arm
• Umbilicus Belly button
• Undescended testes Condition in which the testes fail to descend from the abdominal cavity into the scrotal sac
• Uraemia Presence of urea in the blood, indicative of kidney disease
• Urethra The canal which carries urine out of the body from the bladder
• Urethritis Inflammation of the urethra, the canal passes urine out of the body from the bladder
• Urinary tract The system which produces urine, includes kidneys, bladder and the tubes which connect them together and to the exterior of the body
• urticaria Nettle rash – a skin disease with eruptions causing great irritation. Generally the result of eating unwholesome food
• Urticaria Nettle rash – a skin disease with eruptions causing great irritation. Generally the result of eating unwholesome food
• Uvula The small fleshy body which hangs down at the back of the throat.

V

• Vaccinia & sequela Vaccinia is the virus used in small pox vaccination, which could cause adverse reactions in its recipients such as rash, fever and headache
• Vaginitis Inflammation of the vagina
• Varicella & sequela Chicken pox
• Venereal disease Diseases related to sexual intercourse. All are contagious.
• Vertigo Giddiness
• Volkmans contracture Permanent flexing of the hand at the wrist
• Von Jakschs anaemia A chronic form of anemia occurring in young children
• Vulva Female sex organ
• Vulvitis Inflammation of the vulva, the female external organs of generation

W

• Webbed digits Condition in which the fingers are joined at the base by a web of skin, also called syndactyly
• Wen Cyst often associated with a sebaceous gland
• Whitlow Inflammation near a finger nail, with formation of pus.
• Whooping cough & sequela Also known as Pertussis. A contagious, spasmodic cough, common in childhood in 19th century. The cough ends in a whoop and sometimes causes vomiting. Despite availability of an effective vaccine it still kills many people each year, mainly, but not

X

• Xanthelasma Yellow patches on the skin
• Xeroderma Dryness of the skin
• Xeroderma pigmentosa A genetic condition in which skin is unable to repair damage by ultraviolet light and patient must avoid excessive exposure to the sun

## Biju John

Biju John is an educational writer, educator and the author of OM - The Otherwise Men. He gives live classes on Skype and Facebook. You can attend his 3 Day Classes (English & Business Studies) in Delhi, Bangalore, Qatar and Dubai. His Contact number is 91 9810740061.